Long-term biochemical results after high-dose-rate intensity modulated brachytherapy with external beam radiotherapy for high risk prostate cancer.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.
Radiation Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.11). 03/2012; 7:31. DOI: 10.1186/1748-717X-7-31
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Biochemical control from series in which radical prostatectomy is performed for patients with unfavorable prostate cancer and/or low dose external beam radiation therapy are given remains suboptimal.The treatment regimen of HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy is a safe and very effective treatment for patients with high risk localized prostate cancer with excellent biochemical control and low toxicity.

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    ABSTRACT: To analyse early toxicity of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost for prostate cancer using 3 fractionation schemes. From February 2009 to May 2012, after the first course of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT 46 Gy/23 f), 124 patients underwent HDRB boost for low (7%), intermediate (19%), and high-risk (73%) prostate cancers. From February to December 2009, Group 1 (G1) = 18 Gy/3 f/2 d (24%); from January 2010 to April 2011, Group 2 (G2) = 18 Gy/2 f/2 d (42%), and from May to September 2011, Group 3 (G3) = 14 Gy/1 f/1 d (34%). Planning and CT-scan was performed before each fraction. Dose constraints for G1/G2 were V100 rectum = 0 and V125 urethra = 0, while for G3 V90 rectum = 0 and V115 urethra = 0. Genito-urinary (GU) and Gastro-intestinal (GI) acute toxicities were assessed at 1 month (for the 3 fractionation schemes) and 6 months (for 18 Gy/3 f and 18 Gy/2 f) after the boost (CTCv3.0). Median follow-up was 25 months (8-46.9), median age was 71 years (50-82), and median CTV was 31 cc (16-71). The grades of acute GI and GU toxicities at 1 and 6 months after HDRB were mainly Grade 1 with few Grade 2 (GU: 5% at 1 month; GI: 1% at 6 months). One patient developed G4 sepsis toxicity 2 days after HDRB and recovered without after-effects. No significant differences were observed at 1 and 6 months after the HDRB between treatment groups. The right fractionation remains under discussion, but prostate cancer HDRB boost using a single fraction (providing similar results in terms of acute toxicity) is more comfortable for the patient, and less time consuming for the medical staff.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to report the outcomes of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria-defined high-risk (HR) and very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer. Data from 178 HR (n = 96, 54%) and VHR (n = 82, 46%) prostate cancer patients who underwent (192)Ir-HDR brachytherapy and hypofractionated EBRT with long-term ADT between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After five fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent ≥6 months of neoadjuvant ADT, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months after EBRT. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 25-94 months) from the start of radiotherapy. The 5-year biochemical non-evidence of disease, freedom from clinical failure and overall survival rates were 90.6% (HR, 97.8%; VHR, 81.9%), 95.2% (HR, 97.7%; VHR, 92.1%), and 96.9% (HR, 100%; VHR, 93.3%), respectively. The highest Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-defined late genitourinary toxicities were Grade 2 in 7.3% of patients and Grade 3 in 9.6%. The highest late gastrointestinal toxicities were Grade 2 in 2.8% of patients and Grade 3 in 0%. Although the 5-year outcome of this tri-modality approach seems favorable, further follow-up is necessary to validate clinical and survival advantages of this intensive approach compared with the standard EBRT approach.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the optimal treatment for patients with high-risk prostate cancer remains unclear, combined radiotherapy and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) has become the standard of care; however, more recently, this paradigm has been challenged. In contemporary surgical series, using a multimodal approach with primary radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, when appropriate, had comparable efficacy in patients with high-risk disease to radiotherapy in combination with ADT. Furthermore, perioperative and postoperative morbidity associated with radical prostatectomy seem to be similar in patients with low-risk, intermediate-risk, or high-risk prostate cancer. Importantly, downstaging and downgrading of a substantial proportion of tumours after surgery suggests that many patients might be overtreated using radiotherapy and ADT. Indeed, the potential benefits of surgery include the ability to obtain tissues that can provide accurate histopathological information and, therefore, guide further disease management, in addition to local control of disease, a potentially reduced risk of developing metastases, and avoidance of long-term ADT. Thus, patients with high-risk disease should be offered a choice of first-line treatments, including surgery. However, effective management of high-risk prostate cancer is likely to require a multimodal approach, including surgery, radiotherapy, and neoadjuvant and adjuvant ADT, although the optimal protocols remain to be determined.
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