Systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent infections from chest drains in blunt and penetrating thoracic injuries (Br J Surg 2012; 99: 506-513)

Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, Tisch Hospital, 530 First Avenue, HCC 6C, New York, New York 10016, USA.
British Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 5.54). 04/2012; 99(4):513-4. DOI: 10.1002/bjs.7745
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Use of antibiotics in patients with isolated chest trauma is controversial. Available studies offer contradictory results because of small sample sizes. However, information provided by recent randomized controlled trials (RCT) included in a systematic review and meta-analysis could help solve the controversy. We performed a systematic review using high-quality information related to the use of antibiotics in patients with a chest tube. We developed a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in chest-trauma patients. Studies included were class I RCT comparing prophylactic antibiotics versus placebo in patients with isolated chest trauma. Main outcomes were posttraumatic empyema and pneumonia. Five Class I studies were selected. There were statistically significant differences regarding the frequency of posttraumatic empyema (RR 0.19) and pneumonia (RR 0.44) in favor of the use of prophylactic antibiotics when compared with placebo. The use of prophylactic antibiotics in patients with chest trauma decreases the incidence of posttraumatic empyema and pneumonia.
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple factors contribute to the development of posttraumatic empyema. These factors include the conditions under which the tube is inserted (emergent or urgent), the mechanism of injury, retained hemothorax, and ventilator care. The incidence of empyema in placebo groups ranges between 0 and 18%. The administration of antibiotics for longer than 24 hours did not seem to significantly reduce this risk compared with a shorter duration, although the numbers in each series were small. Most reports found a significant reduction in pneumonitis when patients received prolonged prophylactic antibiotics. This use of antibiotics might possibly be better described as presumptive therapy rather than prophylactic.
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    ABSTRACT: Facility-level process measure adherence is being publicly reported. However, the association between measure adherence and surgical outcomes is not well-established. Our objective was to determine the degree to which Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) process measures are associated with American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) risk-adjusted outcomes. This cross-sectional study included hospitals participating in the ACS NSQIP and SCIP (n = 200). ACS NSQIP outcomes (30-day overall morbidity, serious morbidity, surgical site infections [SSI], and mortality) and adherence to SCIP SSI-related process measures (from the Hospital Compare database) were collected from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008. Hospital-level correlation coefficients between compliance with 4 process measures (ie, antibiotic administration within 1 hour before incision [SCIP-1]; appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis [SCIP-2]; antibiotic discontinuation within 24 hours after surgery [SCIP-3]; and appropriate hair removal [SCIP 6]) and 4 risk-adjusted outcomes were calculated. Regression analyses estimated the contribution of process measure adherence to risk-adjusted outcomes. Of 211 ACS NSQIP hospitals, 95% had data reported by Hospital Compare. Depending on the measure, hospital-level compliance ranged from 60% to 100%. Of the 16 correlations, 15 demonstrated nonsignificant associations with risk-adjusted outcomes. The exception was the relationship between SCIP-2 and SSI (p = 0.004). SCIP-1 demonstrated an intriguing but nonsignificant relationship with SSI (p = 0.08) and overall morbidity (p = 0.08). Although adherence to SCIP-2 was a significant predictor of risk-adjusted SSI (p < 0.0001) and overall morbidity (p < 0.0001), inclusion of compliance for SCIP-1 and SCIP-2 caused only slight improvement in model quality. Better adherence to infection-related process measures over the observed range was not significantly associated with better outcomes with one exception. Different measures of quality might be needed for surgical infection.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 12/2010; 211(6):705-14. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2010.09.006 · 5.12 Impact Factor