Dis-appearance and dys-appearance anew: Living with excess skin and intestinal changes following weight loss surgery, Medicine

Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, .
Medicine Health Care and Philosophy (Impact Factor: 0.91). 03/2012; 16(3). DOI: 10.1007/s11019-012-9397-5
Source: PubMed


The aim of this article is to explore bodily changes following weight loss surgery. Our empirical material is based on individual interviews with 22 Norwegian women. To further analyze their experiences, we build primarily on the phenomenologist Drew Leder`s distinction between bodily dis-appearance and dys-appearance. Additionally, our analysis is inspired by Simone de Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty and Julia Kristeva. Although these scholars have not directed their attention to obesity operations, they occupy a prime framework for shedding light on different dimensions of bodily change. In doing so, we were able to identify two main themes: The felt "inner" body versus the visible "surface" body and the "old" body versus the "new" body. In different, though interconnected ways, these main themes encompass tensions between changes the women experienced as contributing to a more "normal" and active life, feeling more accepted, and changes that generated ambivalence. In particular, their skin became increasingly problematic because it did not "shrink" like the rest of the body. On the contrary, it became looser and looser. Moreover, badsmelling folds of skin that wobbled, sweated and chafed at the smallest movement, aprons of fat hanging in front of their stomachs, batwing arms, thick flabby thighs and sagging breasts were described as a huge contrast to the positive response they received to their changed body shape when they were out and about with their clothes on. At the same time, they expressed ambivalence with regards to removing the excess skin by means of plastic surgery. Through their own and other women`s experiences they learned removing the excess skin by means of surgery could be a double-edged sword. By illuminating the experiences of the ones undergoing such changes our article offers new insight in a scholarly debate predominated by medical research documenting the positive outcomes of weight loss surgery.

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    • "As noted above, researchers on obesity frequently encounter this social form of dys-appearance, which can arise in the course of everyday life (Murray, 2005), as well as in settings involving specific movements (Groven, et al., 2011; Knutsen et al., 2011; Puhl & Heuer, 2008; Throsby, 2013; Vartanian & Novak, 2011;). Groven et al., (2012) assert that the distinction between social and organic dys-appearance is somewhat problematic, asserting that " dys-appearance generally involves both social and bodily dimensions, and … these dimensions interplay in ways that make them hard, if not impossible, to distinguish " (p. 509). "
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    ABSTRACT: From a medical perspective, exercise and physical activity are valuable tools for losing weight, through an increase in energy expenditure. However, beyond this instrumental value, physical activity has meaning for the person experiencing it. Among individuals categorized as obese, that meaning is often problematic. The aim of this paper is to produce essential knowledge about one young mans embodied experiences of practicing martial art. Through a phenomenological analysis of research material concerning the young man’s passionate relationship to martial arts, we identify ways in which someone who has a body often regarded negatively, might still derive great pleasure from his movement experiences.
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    • "Perception of control is suggested to be an essential aspect of patients’ postsurgery experiences of their own bodies (Jensen et al., 2013). Living with excess skin and scars after bariatric surgery is shown to create ambivalence and discomfort, experienced as a constant reminder of the impossibility of fully escaping the previously large body (Groven, Råheim, & Engelsrud, 2013). In a study by Groven, Råheim, and Engelsrud (2010), it is also shown how the participants experienced their lives to become dramatically worsened following bariatric surgery. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study is grounded in a phenomenological lifeworld perspective. It aims at providing rich descriptions of lived experience of the process of losing weight after obesity surgery. Two women participated in in-depth interviews four times each during the first postoperative year. Based on the women's experiences, a meaning structure-the ambivalence of losing weight after obesity surgery-was identified across the women's processes of change. This consisted of five core themes: movement and activity-freedom but new demands and old restraints; eating habits and digestion-the complexity of change; appearance-smaller, but looser; social relations-stability and change; and being oneself-vulnerability and self-assurance. These core themes changed over time in terms of dominance. The experience of ambivalence is discussed according to a phenomenological perspective of the body as lived experience.
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