An in vivo study on the diuretic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica

African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology (Impact Factor: 0.84). 02/2012; 6(7):454-458. DOI: 10.5897/AJPP11.395


Holarrhena antidysenterica is used as diuretic in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the crude extract of H. antidysentrica seeds (Ha.Cr) and its fractions, n-hexane (Ha.Hx), n-butanol (Ha.Bu) and aqueous (Ha.Aq), for their diuretic effect in Wistar rats and to investigate whether the activity is concentrated in any of the fractions. Wistar rats kept on fasting for 24 h with water ad labium, divided into normal, positive control and treated groups were orally given normal saline (20 ml/kg), hydrochlorothiazide (HCT; 10 mg/kg) and different doses of the plant material, respectively. Immediately after dosing, the rats were housed in the metabolic cages. The urine was collected at 2 h interval for 6 h and volume, pH and electrolytes levels were measured. Ha.Cr caused dose-dependent (30 and 100 mg/kg) increase in urine output, indicating the diuretic effect. In addition, Ha.Cr increased urine contents of Na+ and K+, suggesting that the diuretic effect is mediated through increased electrolyte excretion. Similarly, the reference drug, HCT (10 mg/kg), increased urine volume and Na+ and K+ excretion. None of the resultant fractions exhibited diuretic effect comparable to that of the parent crude extract. Ha.Hx was devoid of diuretic effect, Ha.Bu exhibited a mild diuretic effect at 30 mg/kg, whereas, Ha.Aq caused a significant increase in urine output only at 100 mg/kg, indicating that the diuretic activity is distributed among fractions but in an order of increasing polarity of the solvent. The enhanced diuretic effect in the crude extract as compared to any individual fraction is suggestive of the existence of additive and/or synergistic effect in the crude extract. This study shows the presence of diuretic activity in the H. antidysentrica possibly mediated through its saluretic effect, which rationalizes its medicinal use as diuretic.

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    • "The purpose of the study was to check the control capacity of crude extracts of leaves and bark of the plant, against the whole spectrum of MDR strains of enteropathogens. Additionally, H. antidysenterica is used ethnobotanically for colic and fever; it is also used as carminative, astringent, lithontriptic tonic, aphrodisiac, cardio-suppressant, diuretic and antihypertensive drug, by tribal folk in India [13] [14] ; seeds are also used as an anti-diabetic remedy in Asian countries [15] . In vitro antimicrobial activity of H. antidysenterica has been well documented [16] [17] , and in vivo abilities to control diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhage, hemorrhoids, amoebiasis and hepatitis have been also recorded [18] . "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess antibacterial activities of leaf and bark extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica (H. antidysenterica), used by an Indian aborigine for ailments of human gastrointestinal tract, against eight extended spectrum β-lactamase producing multidrug resistant enteropathogens. Methods Antibacterial activities of eight solvent-extracts of the plant were monitored by the agar-well diffusion method on lawns of all bacteria. Further, minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the best three solvent extracts were determined by the micro-broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the active leaf and bark extracts were carried out. Results It was found that Enterobacter aerogenes was resistant to 14 of 16 antibiotics, likewise, Escherichia coli to 13, Klebsiella sp. to 14, Salmonella paratyphi to 7, Salmonella typhi to 15, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei to 14, Vibrio cholerae to 4 of 16 antibiotics. It was found that plant-extracts with petroleum ether and n-hexane had the least antibacterial activity. Extracts of leaves with chloroform, methanol, and water registered moderate antibacterial activity, whereas bark-extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol had a comparatively higher antibacterial activity on all these strains. Maximum sizes of zone of inhibition due to leaf extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol, and on the other hand, bark extracts with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol were recorded against these bacteria; minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of specifically these extracts were determined. Phytochemical analysis of the methanolic bark extract of H. antidysenterica confirmed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, reducing sugars, tannins, and flavonoids. Conclusion Data analysis revealed that leaves and bark of H. antidysenterica could serve as complementary/supplementary drugs along with suitable antibiotics to control the marauding multidrug resistant enteropathogens.
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 01/2014; 4:S54–S63. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60415-1
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    • "Dozens of Chinese herbal medicinal formulas have been used for promotion of blood production for centuries. Beneficiary effects of medicinal plants have been reported on a series of biological functions such as antioxidants or diuretic (Zhang et al., 2012; Khan et al., 2012a, b). The root of Angelica Sinensis, known as Danggui in China, is one of the most popular Chinese herbal medicines and widely used in traditional Chinese medicinal therapy for various diseases as well as a healthful food tonic and spice for thousands of years *Corresponding author. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of Angelica polysaccharide on erythrocyte immunity and marrow hematopoiesis in chickens, Angelica polysaccharide was used for the study of immunity and hematinic mechanism in order to provide basis for clinical reference. In this experiment, three gradient dosages (50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight) of Angelica polysaccharide were drenched to the control group and the anemia groups, respectively. The anemia chickling model was made by abdominal injection of cyclophosphamide (CY) for 6 days (80 mg/kg·day). Red blood cell-C3b receptor (RBC-CR1) and red blood cell-immune complex (RBC-IC) rosette rates were measured and analyzed. Ectogenetic semi-solid culture medium of bone marrow hemopoietic progenitor cells was used to observe Angelica polysaccharide and separated serum from Angelica polysaccharide treatment on the proliferation of colony-forming unit-erythrocyte (CFU-E), burst-forming unit-erythrocyte (BFU-E) and colony-forming unit-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM). The results showed that Angelica polysaccharide can significantly increase RBC-CR1 rosette rate in the healthy chicken groups (p<0.01), but had no more effect on RBC-IC rosette rate (p>0.05). At the same time, Angelica polysaccharide can restore the RBC-CR1 rosette rate and the RBC-IC rosette rate caused by cyclophosphamide to the normal level. Serum containing Angelica polysaccharide can significantly facilitate the proliferation on CFU-E (p<0.01), BFU-E (p<0.01) and CFU-GM (p<0.01), but Angelica polysaccharide had no more direct proliferation on CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM. This indicated that Angelica polysaccharide had the proliferation on hemopoietic progenitor cells of marrow by the change of hemopoietic factor.
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    ABSTRACT: Holarrhena antidysenterica has a traditional use in the treatment of urolithiasis, therefore, its crude extract has been investigated for possible antiurolithic effect. The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Ha.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, Ha.Cr demonstrated a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of aggregation. It decreased the size of crystals and transformed the calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) to calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD) crystals, in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ha.Cr (0.3 mg/ml) reduced (p < 0.05) the cell toxicity and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm(2)) crystals. In male Wistar rats, receiving 0.75 % ethylene glycol (EG) for 21 days along with 1 % ammonium chloride (AC) in drinking water, Ha.Cr treatment (30-100 mg/kg) prevented the toxic changes caused by lithogenic agents; EG and AC, like loss of body weight, polyurea, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. These data indicate that Holarrhena antidysenterica possesses antiurolithic activity, possibly mediated through the inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation, antioxidant and renal epithelial cell protective activities and may provide base for designing future studies to establish its efficacy and safety for clinical use.
    Urological Research 05/2012; 40(6). DOI:10.1007/s00240-012-0483-1 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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