Unique spectrum of SPAST variants in Estonian HSP patients: presence of benign missense changes but lack of exonic rearrangements
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder that can be an autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, or X-linked disease. The most common autosomal-dominant form of the disease derives from mutations in the SPAST gene. METHODS: The aim of this study was to analyze 49 patients diagnosed with HSP from the Estonian population for sequence variants of the SPAST gene and to describe the associated phenotypes. Healthy control individuals (n = 100) with no family history of HSP were also analyzed. All patient samples were screened using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay. Samples with abnormal DHPLC and MLPA profiles were sequenced, with the same regions sequenced in control samples. RESULTS: Sequence variants of SPAST were identified in 19/49 HSP patients (38.8%), twelve among them had pathogenic mutations. Within the latter group there was one sporadic case. Eight patients had pure, and four - complex HSP. The twelve variants were identified: seven pathogenic (c.1174-1G>C, c.1185delA, c.1276C>T, c.1352_1356delGAGAA, c.1378C>A, c.1518_1519insTC, c.1841_1842insA) and five non-pathogenic (c.131C>T, c.484G>A, c.685A>G, c.1245+202delG, c.1245+215G>C). Only 2 of these mutations had previously been described (c.131C>T, c.1245+202delG). Three mutations, c.1174-1G>C, c.1276 C>T, c.1378C>A, showed intrafamilial segregation. CONCLUSION: This study identified new variants of the SPAST gene which included benign missense variants and short insertions/deletions. No large rearrangements were found. Based on these data, 7 new pathogenic variants of HSP are associated with clinical phenotypes.
Article: Mutational spectrum of the SPG4 (SPAST) and SPG3A (ATL1) genes in Spanish patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hereditary Spastic Paraplegias (HSP) are characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. At least 45 loci have been identified in families with autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), or X-linked hereditary patterns. Mutations in the SPAST (SPG4) and ATL1 (SPG3A) genes would account for about 50% of the ADHSP cases. We defined the SPAST and ATL1 mutational spectrum in a total of 370 unrelated HSP index cases from Spain (83% with a pure phenotype). We found 50 SPAST mutations (including two large deletions) in 54 patients and 7 ATL1 mutations in 11 patients. A total of 33 of the SPAST and 3 of the ATL1 were new mutations. A total of 141 (31%) were familial cases, and we found a higher frequency of mutation carriers among these compared to apparently sporadic cases (38% vs. 5%). Five of the SPAST mutations were predicted to affect the pre-mRNA splicing, and in 4 of them we demonstrated this effect at the cDNA level. In addition to large deletions, splicing, frameshifting, and missense mutations, we also found a nucleotide change in the stop codon that would result in a larger ORF. In a large cohort of Spanish patients with spastic paraplegia, SPAST and ATL1 mutations were found in 15% of the cases. These mutations were more frequent in familial cases (compared to sporadic), and were associated with heterogeneous clinical manifestations.BMC Neurology 10/2010; 10:89. · 2.17 Impact Factor