Dealing with megawatt beams

Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT The next generation of accelerators for MegaWatt proton, electron and
heavy-ion beams puts unprecedented requirements on the accuracy of particle
production predictions, the capability and reliability of the codes used in
planning new accelerator facilities and experiments, the design of machine,
target and collimation systems, detectors and radiation shielding and
minimization of their impact on environment. Recent advances in code
developments are described for the critical modules related to these
challenges. Examples are given for the most demanding areas: targets,
collimators, beam absorbers, radiation shielding, induced radioactivity and
radiation damage.

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    ABSTRACT: The main focus of the workshop was on collimators and beam absorbers for (mainly) High Energy Hadron Accelerators, with the energy stored in the beams far above damage limit. The objective was to better understand the technological limits imposed by mechanisms related to beam impact on materials. The idea to organise this workshop came up during the High Intensity High Brightness Hadron Beams, ICFA-HB2006 in Japan [1]. The workshop was organised 3-5 September 2007 at CERN, with about 60 participants, including 20 from outside CERN. About 30 presentations were given [2]. The event was driven by the LHC challenge, with more than 360 MJoule stored in each proton beam. The entire beam or its fraction will interact with LHC collimators and beam absorbers, and with the LHC beam dump blocks. Collimators and beam absorbers are also of the interest for other labs and accelerators: - CERN: for the CNGS target, for SPS beam absorbers (extraction protection) and collimators for protecting the transfer line between SPS and LHC - GSI: SIS18 and SIS 100/200, Super-FRS target, HED experiments, Antiproton target, etc. - Fermilab: Tevatron and Main Injector collimation systems; neutrino production targets (MINOS, SNuMI, NOVA); antiproton production targets; pion production targets and beam absorbers for neutrino factories and muon colliders - ILC: positron production targets, beam absorbers and collimators for a beam delivery system.
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    ABSTRACT: A description of the IntraNuclear Cascade (INC), preequilibrium, evaporation, fission, coalescence, and Fermi breakup models used by the latest versions of our CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators is presented, with a focus on our most recent developments of these models. The recently developed "S" and "G" versions of our codes, that consider multifragmentation of nuclei formed after the preequilibrium stage of reactions when their excitation energy is above 2A MeV using the Statistical Multifragmentation Model (SMM) code by Botvina et al. ("S" stands for SMM) and the fission-like binary-decay model GEMINI by Charity ("G" stands for GEMINI), respectively, are briefly described as well. Examples of benchmarking our models against a large variety of experimental data on particle-particle, particle-nucleus, and nucleus-nucleus reactions are presented. Open questions on reaction mechanisms and future necessary work are outlined. Comment: 94 pages, 51 figures, 5 tables, invited lectures presented at the Joint ICTP-IAEA Advanced Workshop on Model Codes for Spallation Reactions, February 4-8, 2008, ICTP, Trieste, Italy; corrected typos and references
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    ABSTRACT: MARS15 is a Monte Carlo code for inclusive and exclusive simulation of three-dimensional hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, muon, heavy-ion, and low-energy neutron transport in accelerator, detector, spacecraft, and shielding components in the energy range from a fraction of an electron volt up to 100 TeV. Main features of the code are described in this paper with a focus on recent developments and benchmarking. Newest developments concern inclusive and exclusive nuclear event generators, extended particle list in both modes, heavy-ion capability electromagnetic interactions, enhanced geometry, tracking, histograming and residual dose modules, improved graphical-user interface, and other external interfaces.


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