Chandra X-ray Observations of the 0.6 < z < 1.1 Red-Sequence Cluster Survey Sample

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 6.73). 10/2007; DOI: 10.1086/587682
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT We present the results of Chandra observations of 13 optically-selected clusters with 0.6<z< 1.1, discovered via the Red-sequence Cluster Survey (RCS). All but one are detected at S/N>3; though 3 were not observed long enough to support detailed analysis. Surface brightness profiles are fit to beta-models. Integrated spectra are extracted within R(2500), and Tx and Lx information is obtained. We derive gas and total masses within R(2500) and R(500). Cosmologically corrected scaling relations are investigated, and we find the RCS clusters to be consistent with self-similar scaling expectations. However discrepancies exist between the RCS sample and lower-z X-ray selected samples for relationships involving Lx, with the higher-z RCS clusters having lower Lx for a given Tx. In addition, we find that gas mass fractions within R(2500) for the high-z RCS sample are lower than expected by a factor of ~2. This suggests that the central entropy of these high-z objects has been elevated by processes such as pre-heating, mergers, and/or AGN outbursts, that their gas is still infalling, or that they contain comparatively more baryonic matter in the form of stars. Finally, relationships between red-sequence optical richness (Bgc) and X-ray properties are fit to the data. For systems with measured Tx, we find that optical richness correlates with both Tx and mass, having a scatter of ~30% with mass for both X-ray and optically-selected clusters. However we also find that X-ray luminosity is not well correlated with richness, and that several of our sample appear to be significantly X-ray faint. Comment: 57 pages, 12 figures; submitted to The Astrophysical Journal. Figure quality reduced to comply with arXiv file size requirements

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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the large scale distribution of matter in the Chandra Deep Field South on the basis of photometric redshifts and we have identifed several over-densities between redshift 0.6 and 2.3. We analyse two of these structures using the deepest X-ray observations ever obtained: 4 Ms with the Chandra satellite and 2.5 Ms with XMM-Newton. We set a very faint upper limit on the X-ray luminosity of a structure at redshift 1.6, and we find an extended X-ray emission from a structure at redshift 0.96 of which we can estimate the gas temperature and make a comparison with the scaling relations between the X-ray luminosity and mass or temperature of high redshift galaxy clusters.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 03/2011; 277.
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    ABSTRACT: We present weak gravitational lensing analysis of 22 high-redshift (z >~1) clusters based on Hubble Space Telescope images. Most clusters in our sample provide significant lensing signals and are well detected in their reconstructed two-dimensional mass maps. Combining the current results and our previous weak-lensing studies of five other high-z clusters, we compare gravitational lensing masses of these clusters with other observables. We revisit the question whether the presence of the most massive clusters in our sample is in tension with the current LambdaCDM structure formation paradigm. We find that the lensing masses are tightly correlated with the gas temperatures and establish, for the first time, the lensing mass-temperature relation at z >~ 1. For the power law slope of the M-TX relation (M propto T^{\alpha}), we obtain \alpha=1.54 +/- 0.23. This is consistent with the theoretical self-similar prediction \alpha=3/2 and with the results previously reported in the literature for much lower redshift samples. However, our normalization is lower than the previous results by 20-30%, indicating that the normalization in the M-TX relation might evolve. After correcting for Eddington bias and updating the discovery area with a more conservative choice, we find that the existence of the most massive clusters in our sample still provides a tension with the current Lambda CDM model. The combined probability of finding the four most massive clusters in this sample after marginalization over current cosmological parameters is less than 1%.
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    ABSTRACT: A subset of blazars emit TeV gamma rays which annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. We have argued in Broderick et al. (2011, Paper I) that plasma beam instabilities can dissipate the pairs' energy locally. This heats the intergalactic medium and dramatically increases its entropy after redshift z~2, with important implications for structure formation: (1) This suggests a scenario for the origin of the cool core (CC)/non-cool core (NCC) bimodality in galaxy clusters and groups. Early forming galaxy groups are unaffected because they can efficiently radiate the additional entropy, developing a CC. However, late forming groups do not have sufficient time to cool before the entropy is gravitationally reprocessed through successive mergers - counteracting cooling and raising the core entropy further. Hence blazar heating works different than feedback by active galactic nuclei, which balances radiative cooling but is unable to transform CC into NCC clusters due to the weak coupling to the cluster gas. (2) We predict a suppression of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich power spectrum on angular scales smaller than 5' due to the globally reduced central pressure of groups and clusters forming after z~1. (3) Our redshift dependent entropy floor increases the characteristic halo mass below which dwarf galaxies cannot form by a factor of ~10 (50) at mean density (in voids) over that found in models that include photoionization alone. This prevents the formation of late forming dwarf galaxies (z<2) with masses ranging from 10^{10} to 10^{11} M_sun for redshifts z~2 to 0, respectively. This may help resolve the "missing satellite problem" in the Milky Way and the "void phenomenon" of the low observed abundances of dwarf satellites compared to cold dark matter simulations and may bring the observed early star formation histories into agreement with galaxy formation models. (abridged)
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2011; · 6.73 Impact Factor

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