A Cross-National Study on Healthcare Safety Climate and Staff Attitudes to Disclosing Adverse Events between China and Japan.
ABSTRACT The present paper reports comparative results of safety climate in healthcare and staff attitudes to error reporting and interaction
with patients between China and Japan. Using two language versions of questionnaire, we collected response data from hospital
staff in China (in 2008) and Japan (in 2006). Significant differences were observed in most dimensions of safety climate between
these two countries, though not in the same direction in terms of positive or negative nature. In contrast, there was a uniform
national difference in staff attitudes to error reporting. Chinese doctors and nurses being significantly less willing than
their Japanese colleagues to engage in any action or interaction with patients after an adverse event, regardless of the severity
of the event. Finally, we discuss possible sources of these differences in safety climate and staff attitudes between the
two countries, and some implications for improving healthcare safety climate.
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ABSTRACT: Using reliable outcome measures is a necessity for the occupational therapy profession in enabling valid assessments of clients. Although Cronbach's alpha is the most widely applied index of internal consistency reliability, there are misconceptions about its use and interpretation. This paper aims to guide assessment developers in paediatric occupational therapy, as well as practitioners who are evaluating outcome measures in using and interpreting the Cronbach's alpha estimates appropriately. This will enable them to decide on the tools' clinical value and incorporate them into their practice with children. Previously published papers reporting on internal consistency issues of outcome measures in paediatric occupational therapy were searched through the Allied and Complementary Medicine database. These papers were used as a basis to discuss possible reasons for reporting of low internal consistency. The analysis demonstrates that Cronbach's alpha reports are not always interpreted in a sound way. The paper emphasises that one should be cautious about judging estimates of internal consistency. Low size of the coefficient alpha might not always indicate problems with the construction of the tool; whereas large sizes do not always suggest adequate reliability. Instead, these reports might be related to the data characteristics of the construct. In judging an outcome measure's internal consistency, researchers and practitioners in occupational therapy should report and consider the nature of data, the scale's length and width, the linearity and the normality of response distribution, the central response tendency, the sample response variability and the sample size.Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 06/2009; 56(3):150-5. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in eastern cities of China; 1060 employees were sampled from 144 enterprises located in East China, and 796 (75.1%) responded validly. The level of safety climate of Chinese manufacturing enterprises as well as the differences in safety climate between large enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) were examined. This study revealed that the safety climate level that the employees’ perceived was rather low in Chinese manufacturing enterprises, and differences in terms of mean scores of total safety climate, factors composing the safety climate, and items to measure this climate between large enterprises and SMEs were statistically significant (at pSafety Science - SAF SCI. 01/2009; 47(7):1043-1046.