The opportunities afforded by using a functional contact lens for remote wireless health status monitoring are discussed and the progress to date in the development of this technology platform is presented. A functional contact lens complete with sensors and embedded circuitry can be used to monitor the composition of tear fluid and, by extension, a number of health-status related parameters in the body in a noninvasive and continuous fashion. The data collected by the disposable contact lens may be sent wirelessly to a mobile phone that, in turn, can relay the information to a medical practitioner via the cellular phone network. If successfully developed and deployed, such a system can be used for monitoring a variety of health indicators over a large geographic area and population distribution with minimal need for the physical presence of health care providers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present progress toward a wirelessly-powered active contact lens comprised of a transparent polymer substrate, loop antenna, power harvesting IC, and micro-LED. The fully integrated radio power harvesting and power management system was fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS process with a total die area of 0.2 mm<sup>2</sup>. It utilizes a small on-chip capacitor for energy storage to light up a micro-LED pixel. We have demonstrated wireless power transfer at 10 cm distance using the custom IC and on-lens antenna.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems 01/2011; 4(6-4):454 - 461. DOI:10.1109/TBCAS.2010.2081989 · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the design, construction, and testing of a contact lens with an integrated amperometric glucose sensor, proposing the possibility of in situ human health monitoring simply by wearing a contact lens. The glucose sensor was constructed by creating microstructures on a polymer substrate, which was subsequently shaped into a contact lens. Titania sol-gel film was applied to immobilize glucose oxidase, and Nafion® was used to decrease several potential interferences (ascorbic acid, lactate, and urea) present in the tear film. The sensor exhibits a fast response (20s), a high sensitivity (240 μA cm(-2) mM(-1)) and a good reproducibility after testing a number of sensors. It shows good linearity for the typical range of glucose concentrations in the tear film (0.1-0.6 mM), and acceptable accuracy in the presence of interfering agents. The sensor can attain a minimum detection of less than 0.01 mM glucose.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell phone usage has grown phenomenally in Africa, and particularly in South Africa where initial growth forecasts have been greatly exceeded. This technology therefore provides opportunities for services such as banking to reach critical mass. All major retail banks in South Africa provide cell phone banking, but very few customers actually use it. This study examines the factors that influence the adoption of cell phone banking in South Africa, as a means of understanding how to possibly increase the rate of adoption. A framework developed in Singapore identifying factors influencing the adoption of Internet banking was used as a basis, and amended to assess cell phone banking. Factors identified as influences included relative advantage, trialability, and consumer banking needs, with perceived risk having a major negative influence.
International Journal of Information Management 10/2003; 23(5-23):381-394. DOI:10.1016/S0268-4012(03)00065-3 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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