FPGA-based testing strategy for cryptographic chips: A case study on Elliptic Curve Processor for RFID tags.
ABSTRACT Testing of cryptographic chips or components has one extra dimension: physical security. The chip designers should improve the design if it leaks too much information through side-channels, such as timing, power consumption, electric-magnetic radiation, and so on. This requires an evaluation of the security level of the chip under different side-channel attacks before it is manufactured. This paper presents an FPGA-based testing strategy for cryptographic chips. Using a block-based architecture, a testing bus and a shadow FPGA, we are able to check information leakage of each block. We describe this strategy with an Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC) for RFID tags.
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ABSTRACT: By carefully measuring the amount of time required to perform private key operations, attackers may be able to find fixed Diffie-Hellman exponents, factor RSA keys, and break other cryptosystems. Against a vulnerable system, the attack is computationally inexpensive and often requires only known ciphertext. Actual systems are potentially at risk, including cryptographic tokens, network-based cryptosystems, and other applications where attackers can make reasonably accurate timing measurements. Techniques for preventing the attack for RSA and Diffie-Hellman are presented. Some cryptosystems will need to be revised to protect against the attack, and new protocols and algorithms may need to incorporate measures to prevent timing attacks.09/1999;
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ABSTRACT: Operational and security requirements for RFID systems such as system scalability, anonymity and anti-cloning are difficult to obtain due to constraints in area, memory, etc. Due to scarceness of resources most of the proposed protocols were designed using symmetric key cryptographic algorithms. However, it has been shown that it is inevitable to use public-key cryptographic algorithms to satisfy these requirements . Moreover, general public-key cryptography based authentication protocols are vulnerable in terms of anonymity, which is shown in this paper. Accordingly, we design a new authentication protocol named EC-RAC using EC (Elliptic Curve) cryptography. EC-RAC can be proved for its security in the generic group model and is carefully designed to minimize its computational workload. Moreover, we present the implementation results of EC-RAC to show its feasibility for RFID systems.RFID, 2008 IEEE International Conference on; 05/2008
- Advances in Cryptology - EUROCRYPT '97, International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques, Konstanz, Germany, May 11-15, 1997, Proceeding; 01/1997
FPGA-based Testing Strategy for Cryptographic Chips: A Case Study on
Elliptic Curve Processor for RFID Tags
Junfeng Fan, Miroslav Kneˇ zevi´ c, Duˇ sko Karaklaji´ c, Roel Maes,
Vladimir Rozi´ c, Lejla Batina and Ingrid Verbauwhede
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, ESAT/SCD-COSIC,
Kasteelpark Arenberg 10
B-3001 Leuven-Heverlee, Belgium
Testing of cryptographic chips or components has one
extra dimension: physical security.
should improve the design if it leaks too much information
through side-channels, such as timing, power consumption,
electric-magnetic radiation, and so on. This requires an
evaluation of the security level of the chip under different
side-channel attacks before it is manufactured. This paper
presents an FPGA-based testing strategy for cryptographic
chips. Using a block-basedarchitecture, a testing bus and a
shadow FPGA, we are able to check information leakage of
each block. We describe this strategy with an Elliptic Curve
Cryptosystem (ECC) for RFID tags.
The chip designers
Public Key Cryptosystems (PKC) such as Elliptic Curve
Cryptosystem (ECC) are used in RFID tags  to pro-
vide chip authentication to the reader. Implementing ECC
on such a small device with limited power budgets is a
challenge. Side-channels attacks, such as Timing Analy-
sis (TA) , Power Analysis (PA)  and Fault Analysis
(FA) , have been studied extensively in recent years. As
a result, the designers of cryptographic chips/components
need to evaluate how much information is leaked though
the side-channels, and improve the design if necessary. In
this paper, we propose a strategy of testing cryptographic
chips/componentsusing FPGAs. Thoughthe term ”testing”
normally means on-line testing of the manufactured chip,
here we also use it to denote estimation of physical secu-
rity in the design phase. It is also because that the proposed
strategy enable a FPGA-based environmentfor on-line test-
ing of the manufactured chip. The strategy mainly consists
tation and (3) attack-based security check. We will present
the details with a case study on an ECC implementation for
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2
describes the general strategy for testing of cryptographic
chips. In Section 3 we present a case study on testing ECC
implementations. We conclude the paper in Section 4.
2 A general testing strategy for crypto-
For cryptographic hardware, there are mainly two types
of testing: functionality and security. While functionality
canbe tested with traditionalmethods,suchas a scan-chain,
the security testing requires specific knowledge about the
cryptosystem and related attacks. Figure 1 shows the front-
end design flow of cryptographic hardware. Here function-
ality verification is to check the output of circuit with the
reference model, while the security estimation is to check
how much information is leaked through side-channels and
how likely it will be broken by known attacks. If the test
results indicate vulnerabilities, the design must be modified
to eliminate it.
With the proposed method, all the blocks are connected
to a testing bus, which can make the ports of each block ex-
ternal. The testing bus consists of only combinational logic
and should not increase the critical path delay. A shadow
of a block, say block X, is the complete implementation ex-
cept block X. Using two FPGA boards, we could do fast
testing on any block. For instance, in order to test block
X, the design is configured so that looking from outside the
wholedesignis just blockX. X’s shadowis implementedon
FPGA2. These two FPGAs are connected with testing bus,
making a complete implementation. With this method, we
avoid generating waveform for testing circuitry and com-
paring the output with reference data. When the chip is
taped out, we can simply replace FPGA1 with the chip, and
start testing each block immediately.
3A case study on ECC implementation
We present the test strategy in detail with a case study.
An ECC processor is designed for RFID tags. We will test
the functionality and security of the ECC implementation
with the method described above.
In ECC basedcryptographicprotocols,the curveE is de-
fined over a finite field K. A nice mathematical background
of ECC can be foundin . Given a point P on E and an in-
teger k, the ECC engine calculates Q=kP. It is believed that
finding out k from P and Q is a hard problem in mathemat-
ics. Using this feature, ECC supports data encryption/de-
cryption, key agreement and identity authentication. Alg. 1
describes a method to compute kP.
Figure 2 shows block diagram of the ECC implementa-
tion with a shadow. It consists of a microprocessor, Elliptic
Curve Processor (ECP) which contains a Modular Arith-
metic Logic Unit (MALU) and a register file, a True Ran-
dom Number Generator (TRNG) and a ROM to store the
curve parameters. All the blocks are connected to a BUS. A
testing bus is inserted in the ECC processor such that each
block is accessible from outside. Here the module under
Algorithm 1 Compute kP Using Montgomery Ladder .
Input: P = (xp,yp), k = (kl−1kl−2···k0)2
Output: Q = (xq,yq) = kP
1: P1← P, P0← 2P
2: for i from l − 2 downto 0 do
P[ki]← P1+ P0, P[1−ki]← 2P[1−ki]
4: end for
5: Return P1
test is ECP, which is the main sourceof area andpowercon-
sumption. On FPGA1, the ECP is selected, and all the rest
is shut down. On FPGA2, ECP’s shadow implementation
is downloaded. The components implemented on FPGA2
(shadow) are carefully verified and now serve as a testing
environment after the chip is manufactured.
Security test is driven by attack models. Successful at-
tacks on ECC with different methods, i.e. TA,PA and FA
have been reported. In this paper we present the prelimi-
nary results of TA/SPA on this ECC implementation.
Timing Analysis (TA)
TA on ECC scalar multiplication is usually based on the
fact that the delay of operations when key bit is 1 might
be different from that of key bit 0. The algorithm used in
this chip, the Montgomery Ladder, is supposed to be secure
against TA. However, in practice it can still be vulnerable if
Figure 2. Testing methods for ECC processor
it is not carefully implemented.
Simple Power Analysis (SPA)
Simple Power Analysis on ECC scalar multiplication is
based on the fact that power consumption may differ when
key bit is 1 or 0. Note that even if the same number of clock
cycles are used for each key bit, different patterns in the
power trace can reveal key bit.
3.2.1On board test
The design shown in Figure 4 is implemented and tested.
We choose the SASEBO board  as the platform. The
SASEBO board is designed for the purpose of side-channel
attack evaluation. It has two FPGAs, a control FPGA and
a target FPGA. We put the ECC processor on the target
FPGA and the shadow on the control FPGA. The power
consumption of ECP during a scalar multiplication is mea-
sured. Both FPGAs work on a clock frequency of 1 MHz.
Figure 3 shows the power trace of the first 4000 clock cy-
cles. Onecanclearlysee parameterloadinginthebeginning
and 10 iterations of Algorithm 1 afterwards.
Figure 3 shows that each iteration takes the same time.
This means that Algorithm1 was carefullybalanced for key
bit being 1 and 0, and attackers can hardly reveal the key
stream using Timing Analysis. A preliminary inspection on
the the power trace shows no obvious patterns repeating for
ki= 1 or k0= 0, which means the implementationof ECC
is SPA resistant to a certain degree.
Since ASIC has different layout from FPGA implemen-
tations, the security estimation on FPGA can only serve as
an indication but not a guarantee. The security of a design
against side-channel attacks can only be evaluated after the
chip is produced. However, the approach described above
enables an early estimation of information leakage in the
Figure 3. Averaged power trace of the ECP
component during point multiplication
design phase. Besides, as shown in Fig 3, the block-based
testing allows a more precise measurement on the informa-
We propose a strategy for testing cryptographic designs
with FPGA boards. Using block-based architecture and
shadow implementation, the functionality of each compo-
nent can be easily tested. Moreover, this strategy gives an
early estimation of physical security. Each component of
the chip can be tested alone, giving a more accurate esti-
mation of information leakage than measuring the whole
This work was supported in part by the IAP Programme
P6/26 BCRYPT of the Belgian State (Belgian Science Pol-
icy), by FWO projects G.0475.05, and G.0300.07, by IWT-
Vlaanderen under grant number 71369, by the European
Comission throughthe IST ProgrammeunderContractIST-
2002-507932ECRYPT NoE,and by the K.U. Leuven-BOF.
The author also want to thank Akashi Satoh (National
Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology,
Japan) and designers of SASEBO.
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