Conference Paper

An eco-friendly routing protocol for Delay Tolerant Networks.

Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada
DOI: 10.1109/WIMOB.2010.5645027 Conference: IEEE 6th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, WiMob 2010, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, 11-13 October, 2010
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT In sparse mobile networks, nodes are connected at discrete periods of time. This disconnection may last for long periods in suburban and rural areas. In addition, mobile nodes are energy and buffer sensitive, such as in mobile sensor networks. The limited power and storage resources, combined with the intermittent connection have created a challenging environment for inter-node networking. This type of networks is often referred to as Delay Tolerant networks (DTN). Routing protocols developed for DTN focused on minimizing the end-to-end delay as a means of maximizing number of delivered packets. Therefore, they tend to spread many copies of the same packet into the network, assuming the availability of sufficient storage space and power. A key factor to help maintain a clean environment, is the reduction of energy consumption which can be achieved by decreasing number of transmissions in the network. In this paper, we formulate a mathematical model for optimal routing in DTN to minimize number of transmissions. In addition, we study and analyze the DTN heuristic routing protocols. After that, we propose an eco-friendly routing protocol, EFR-DTN, that efficiently uses simple information provided from the network to deliver packets with higher delivery ratio and minimum energy consumption than the other protocols. Simulation results show the outperformance of the proposed protocol under different buffer capacities, traffic loads, packet TTL values, and number of nodes in the network.

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    ABSTRACT: Networks in which nodes are intermittently connected, and have limited storage space and power, are termed Delay Tolerant Networks (DTN). To overcome these conditions, DTN routing protocols require nodes to store data packets for long periods of time until they contact with each other. In addition, they spread multiple copies of the same packet in the network to increase the probability of one of them reaching the destination. Long-term storage and multiple transmissions require large buffer space and non-restricted power availability which is hard to exist in DTN. In this paper, we study the routing problem in DTN with limited resources. We formulate a mathematical model for optimal routing, assuming the knowledge of present and future nodes contact and buffer space. After that, we analyze the previously developed heuristic protocols, and we propose a new protocol based on social relations between the nodes to avoid redundant copying of packets. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces energy consumption and provides better delivery ratio compared to other protocols.
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    ABSTRACT: Networks in which nodes are sparsely distributed and, therefore, are disconnected for long periods of time, are termed Delay Tolerant networks (DTN). The intermittent connection, together, with the limited resources of mobile nodes, mainly power and memory, created a challenging environment for data networking in DTN. Routing protocols developed for DTN tend to discover and select the minimum end-to-end delay paths to destinations assuming that these paths provide the highest delivery rate. To achieve this goal, they spread many copies of the same packet, ignoring the limitedness of storage space and power sources. In this paper, we study this problem by building a mathematical model for optimal routing in DTN. We compare the results of implementing three objectives for this model: minimizing the end-to-end delay, minimizing the end-to-end number of hops, and maximizing the delivered messages. We study and analyze the impact of varying the buffer space, the traffic load and the packets time-to-live (TTL) on the three objectives. Results show that minimizing the number of hops provides higher delivery ratio than minimizing the delay, which contradicts the previous assumption. In addition, minimizing the number of hops significantly reduces the number of transmissions which results in saving energy.
    Computer Engineering Conference (ICENCO), 2010 International; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Delay tolerant networks (DTN) are characterized by a lack of continuous end-to-end connections due to node mobility, constrained power sources, and limited data storage space of some or all of its nodes. To overcome the frequent disconnections, DTN nodes are required to store data packets for long periods of time until they come near other nodes. Moreover, to increase the delivery probability, they spread multiple copies of the same packet on the network so that one of them reaches the destination. Given the limited storage and energy resources of many DTN nodes, there is a tradeoff between maximizing delivery and minimizing storage and energy consumption. In this paper, we study the routing problem in DTN with limited resources. We formulate a mathematical model for optimal routing, assuming the presence of a global observer that can collect information about all the nodes in the network. Next, we propose a new protocol based on social grouping among the nodes to maximize data delivery while minimizing network overhead by efficiently spreading the packet copies in the network. We compare the new protocol with the optimal results and the existing well-known routing protocols using real life simulations. Results show that the proposed protocol achieves higher delivery ratio and less average delay compared to other protocols with significant reduction in network overhead.
    IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 01/2012; 99(PrePrints):1-1. · 1.80 Impact Factor

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