Axon Diameter Mapping in the Presence of Orientation Dispersion with Diffusion MRI.
01/2010; In proceeding of: Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention - MICCAI 2010, 13th International Conference, Beijing, China, September 20-24, 2010, Proceedings, Part I
Article: Double-wave-vector diffusion-weighted imaging reveals microscopic diffusion anisotropy in the living human brain.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diffusion-tensor imaging is widely used to characterize diffusion in biological tissue, however, the derived anisotropy information, e.g., the fractional anisotropy, is ambiguous. For instance, low values of the diffusion anisotropy in brain white matter voxels may reflect a reduced axon density, i.e., a loss of fibers, or a lower fiber coherence within the voxel, e.g., more crossing fibers. This ambiguity can be avoided with experiments involving two diffusion-weighting periods applied successively in a single acquisition, so-called double-wave-vector or double-pulsed-field-gradient experiments. For a long mixing time between the two periods such experiments are sensitive to the cells' eccentricity, i.e., the diffusion anisotropy present on a microscopic scale. In this study, it is shown that this microscopic diffusion anisotropy can be detected in white matter in the living human brain, even in a macroscopically isotropic region-of-interest (fractional anisotropy = 0). The underlying signal difference between parallel and orthogonal wave vector orientations does not show up in standard diffusion-weighting experiments but is specific to the double-wave-vector experiment. Furthermore, the modulation amplitude observed is very similar for regions-of-interest with different fractional anisotrpy values. Thus, double-wave-vector experiments may provide a direct and reliable access to white matter integrity independent of the actual fiber orientation distribution within the voxel. Magn Reson Med, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Magnetic Resonance in Medicine 06/2012; · 2.96 Impact Factor
Article: Determination of axonal and dendritic orientation distributions within the developing cerebral cortex by diffusion tensor imaging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As neurons of the developing brain form functional circuits, they undergo morphological differentiation. In immature cerebral cortex, radially-oriented cellular processes of undifferentiated neurons impede water diffusion parallel, but not perpendicular, to the pial surface, as measured via diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and give rise to water diffusion anisotropy. As the cerebral cortex matures, the loss of water diffusion anisotropy accompanies cellular morphological differentiation. A quantitative relationship is proposed here to relate water diffusion anisotropy measurements directly to characteristics of neuronal morphology. This expression incorporates the effects of local diffusion anisotropy within cellular processes, as well as the effects of anisotropy in the orientations of cellular processes. To obtain experimental support for the proposed relationship, tissue from 13 and 31 day-old ferrets was stained using the rapid Golgi technique, and the 3-D orientation distribution of neuronal processes was characterized using confocal microscopic examination of reflected visible light images. Coregistration of the MRI and Golgi data enables a quantitative evaluation of the proposed theory, and excellent agreement with the theoretical results, as well as agreement with previously published values for locally-induced water diffusion anisotropy and volume fraction of the neuropil, is observed.IEEE transactions on medical imaging. 07/2011; 31(1):16-32.
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