Infrastructure-Less Multicast Protocol in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks.
ABSTRACT Ad-hoc networks have the characteristics of dynamic topology and many applications on ad-hoc networks tend to require group
communication capabilities. Previously proposed multicast mechanisms on mobile ad-hoc networks build multicast-infrastructures
like the tree or mesh for the group communication and these infrastructures may cause significant overhead especially in a
highly dynamic mobile ad-hoc network environment. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new multicast mechanism supporting
multicast services based on only the underlying unicast routing tables, hence any multicast-related infrastructures like trees
and meshes are not required to be constructed. As a result, we could achieve better performance in terms of the reliability
and the control overhead.
SourceAvailable from: Mingyan Liu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Ad hoc Multicast Routing protocol (AMRoute) presents a novel approach for robust IP Multicast in mobile ad hoc networks by exploiting user-multicast trees and dynamic logical cores. It creates a bidirectional, shared tree for data distribution using only group senders and receivers as tree nodes. Unicast tunnels are used as tree links to connect neighbors on the user-multicast tree. Thus, AMRoute does not need to be supported by network nodes that are not interested/capable of multicast, and group state cost is incurred only by group senders and receivers. Also, the use of tunnels as tree links implies that tree structure does not need to change even in case of a dynamic network topology, which reduces the signaling traffic and packet loss. Thus AMRoute does not need to track network dynamics; the underlying unicast protocol is solely responsible for this function. AMRoute does not require a specific unicast routing protocol; therefore, it can operate seamlessly over separate domains with different unicast protocols. Certain tree nodes are designated by AMRoute as logical cores, and are responsible for initiating and managing the signaling component of AMRoute, such as detection of group members and tree setup. Logical cores differ significantly from those in CBT and PIM-SM, since they are not a central point for data distribution and can migrate dynamically among member nodes. Simulation results (using ns-2) demonstrate that AMRoute signaling traffic remains at relatively low level for typical group sizes. The results also indicate that group members receive a high proportion of data multicast by senders, even in the case of a highly dynamic network. Keywords: IP Multicast, mobile ad hoc networks, network protocols, routingMobile Networks and Applications 01/2002; 7:429-439. DOI:10.1023/A:1020748431138 · 1.50 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: On-demand multicast routing protocol[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents a novel multicast routing protocol for mobile ad hoc wireless networks. The protocol, termed ODMRP (on-demand multicast routing protocol), is a mesh-based, rather than a conventional tree-based multicast scheme and uses a forwarding group concept (only a subset of nodes forwards the multicast packets via scoped flooding). It applies on-demand procedures to dynamically build routes and maintain multicast group membership. ODMRP is well suited for ad hoc wireless networks with mobile hosts where bandwidth is limited, topology changes frequently, and power is constrained. We evaluate ODMRP's scalability and performance via simulationWireless Communications and Networking Conference, 1999. WCNC. 1999 IEEE; 02/1999
Conference Paper: An Architecture for Wide-Area Multicast Routing.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Existing multicast routing mechanisms were intended for use within regions where a group is widely represented or bandwidth is universally plentiful. When group members, and senders to those group members, are distributed sparsely across a wide area, these schemes are not efficient; data packets or membership report information are occasionally sent over many links that do not lead to receivers or senders, respectively. We have developed a multicast routing architecture that efficiently establishes distribution trees across wide area internets, where many groups will be sparsely represented. Efficiency is measured in terms of the state, control message processing, and data packet processing, required across the entire network in order to deliver data packets to the members of the group.Our Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) architecture: (a) maintains the traditional IP multicast service model of receiver-initiated membership; (b) can be configured to adapt to different multicast group and network characteristics; (c) is not dependent on a specific unicast routing protocol; and (d) uses soft-state mechanisms to adapt to underlying network conditions and group dynamics. The robustness, flexibility, and scaling properties of this architecture make it well suited to large heterogeneous inter-networks.Proceedings of the conference on Communications architectures, protocols and applications; 10/1994