Conference Paper

Polly Cracker, Revisited.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-25385-0_10 Conference: Advances in Cryptology - ASIACRYPT 2011 - 17th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Seoul, South Korea, December 4-8, 2011. Proceedings
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT We initiate the formal treatment of cryptographic constructions ("Polly Cracker") based on the hardness of computing remainders modulo an ideal over multivariate polynomial rings. We start by formalising the relation between the ideal remainder problem and the problem of computing a Gröbner basis. We show both positive and negative results. On the negative side, we define a symmetric Polly Cracker encryption scheme and prove that this scheme only achieves bounded CPA security. Furthermore, we show that a large class of algebraic transformations cannot convert this scheme to a fully secure Polly-Cracker-style scheme. On the positive side, we formalise noisy variants of the ideal membership, ideal remainder, and Gröbner basis problems. These problems can be seen as natural generalisations of the LWE problem and the approximate GCD problem over polynomial rings. We then show that noisy encoding of messages results in a fully IND-CPA-secure somewhat homomorphic encryption scheme. Our results provide a new family of somewhat homomorphic encryption schemes based on new, but natural, hard problems. Our results also imply that Regev's LWE-based public-key encryption scheme is (somewhat) multiplicatively homomorphic for appropriate choices of parameters.

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    ABSTRACT: We propose a new fully homomorphic cryptosystem called Symmetric Polly Cracker (SymPC) and we prove its security in the information theoretical settings. Namely, we prove that SymPC approaches perfect secrecy in bounded CPA model as its security parameter grows (which we call approximate perfect secrecy). In our construction, we use a Gröbner basis to generate a polynomial factor ring of ciphertexts and use the underlying field as the plaintext space. The Gröbner basis equips the ciphertext factor ring with a multiplicative structure that is easily algorithmized, thus providing an environment for a fully homomorphic cryptosystem.
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    ABSTRACT: We provide an alternative method for constructing lattice-based digital signatures which does not use the "hash-and-sign" methodology of Gentry, Peikert, and Vaikuntanathan (STOC 2008). Our resulting signature scheme is secure, in the random oracle model, based on the worst-case hardness of the Õ(n1.5)-SIVP problem in general lattices. The secret key, public key, and the signature size of our scheme are smaller than in all previous instantiations of the hash-and-sign signature, and our signing algorithm is also quite simple, requiring just a few matrix-vector multiplications and rejection samplings. We then also show that by slightly changing the parameters, one can get even more efficient signatures that are based on the hardness of the Learning With Errors problem. Our construction naturally transfers to the ring setting, where the size of the public and secret keys can be significantly shrunk, which results in the most practical to-date provably secure signature scheme based on lattices.
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider the Polly Cracker with Noise (PCN) cryptosystem by Albrecht, Farshim, Faugère, and Perret (Asiacrypt 2011), which is a public-key cryptosystem based on the hardness of computing Gröbner bases for noisy random systems of multivariate equations. We examine four settings, covering all possible parameter ranges of PCN with zero-degree noise. In the first setting, the PCN cryptosystem is known to be equivalent to Regev's LWE-based scheme. In the second, it is known to be at most as secure as Regev's scheme. We show that for one other settings it is equivalent to a variants of Regev's with less efficiency and in the last setting it is completely insecure and we give an efficient key-recovery attack. Unrelated to the attack, we also fix some flaws in the security proofs of PCN.
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