Automated Analysis of siRNA Screens of Virus Infected Cells Based on Immunofluorescence Microscopy.
ABSTRACT We present an image analysis approach as part of a high- throughput microscopy screening system based on cell arrays for the identification of genes involved in Hepatitis C and Dengue virus replica- tion. Our approach comprises: cell nucleus segmentation, quantification of virus replication level in cells, localization of regions with transfected cells, cell classification by infection status, and quality assessment of an experiment. The approach is fully automatic and has been successfully applied to a large number of cell array images from screening experi- ments. The experimental results show a good agreement with the ex- pected behavior of positive as well as negative controls and encourage the application to screens from further high-throughput experiments.
- SourceAvailable from: uzh.ch[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this article, we define systems biology of virus entry in mammalian cells as the discipline that combines several approaches to comprehensively understand the collective physical behaviour of virus entry routes, and to understand the coordinated operation of the functional modules and molecular machineries that lead to this physical behaviour. Clearly, these are extremely ambitious aims, but recent developments in different life science disciplines slowly allow us to set them as realistic, although very distant, goals. Besides classical approaches to obtain high-resolution information of the molecules, particles and machines involved, we require approaches that can monitor collective behaviour of many molecules, particles and machines simultaneously, in order to reveal design principles of the systems as a whole. Here we will discuss approaches that fall in the latter category, namely time-lapse imaging and single-particle tracking (SPT) combined with computational analysis and modelling, and genome-wide RNA interference approaches to reveal the host components required for virus entry. These techniques should in the future allow us to assign host genes to the systems' functions and characteristics, and allow emergence-driven, in silico assembly of networks that include interactions with increasing hierarchy (molecules-multiprotein complexes-vesicles and organelles), and kinetics and subcellular spatiality, in order to allow realistic simulations of virus entry in real time.Cellular Microbiology 09/2006; 8(8):1219-27. · 4.81 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Automatic cell segmentation has various applications in cytometry, and while the nucleus is often very distinct and easy to identify, the cytoplasm provides a lot more challenge. A new combination of image analysis algorithms for segmentation of cells imaged by fluorescence microscopy is presented. The algorithm consists of an image pre-processing step, a general segmentation and merging step followed by a segmentation quality measurement. The quality measurement consists of a statistical analysis of a number of shape descriptive features. Objects that have features that differ to that of correctly segmented single cells can be further processed by a splitting step. By statistical analysis we therefore get a feedback system for separation of clustered cells. After the segmentation is completed, the quality of the final segmentation is evaluated. By training the algorithm on a representative set of training images, the algorithm is made fully automatic for subsequent images created under similar conditions. Automatic cytoplasm segmentation was tested on CHO-cells stained with calcein. The fully automatic method showed between 89% and 97% correct segmentation as compared to manual segmentation.Analytical cellular pathology: the journal of the European Society for Analytical Cellular Pathology 02/2002; 24(2-3):101-11.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The paper describes the key component of the Multimodal Cell Analysis approach, a novel cytologic evaluation method for early cancer detection. The approach is based on repeated staining of a cell smear. The correlation of features and data extracted from the different stains, and related to relocated individual cells, may yield a dramatic increase of diagnostic reliability. In order to utilise the technique, fully automatic, adaptive image preprocessing techniques need to be applied, which are described in this article: coregistration of multimodal images, segmentation, and classification of cell nuclei. The presented feasibility study shows both efficiency and robustness of all steps being high regarding medical image material, and it strongly supports clinical application.Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics 01/2004; 28(1-2):87-98. · 1.66 Impact Factor
Automated Analysis of siRNA Screens
of Virus Infected Cells
based on Immunofluorescence Microscopy
Petr Matula1,2, Anil Kumar3, Ilka W¨ orz3, Nathalie Harder1,2, Holger Erfle4,
Ralf Bartenschlager3, Roland Eils1,2, Karl Rohr1,2
1BIOQUANT, IPMB, University of Heidelberg,2Dept. Bioinformatics and
Functional Genomics, Biomedical Computer Vision Group, DKFZ Heidelberg
3Department of Molecular Virology, University of Heidelberg
4BIOQUANT, University of Heidelberg
Abstract. We present an image analysis approach as part of a high-
throughput microscopy screening system based on cell arrays for the
identification of genes involved in Hepatitis C and Dengue virus replica-
tion. Our approach comprises: cell nucleus segmentation, quantification
of virus replication level in cells, localization of regions with transfected
cells, cell classification by infection status, and quality assessment of an
experiment. The approach is fully automatic and has been successfully
applied to a large number of cell array images from screening experi-
ments. The experimental results show a good agreement with the ex-
pected behavior of positive as well as negative controls and encourage
the application to screens from further high-throughput experiments.
Viruses need to enter cells and exploit their cellular machinery to produce own
copies. Classical virology has focused on the virus itself, thereby neglecting crit-
ically important processes of the host cells . Our ultimate goal is to develop
a high-throughput microscopy screening system for genome-wide identification
of cellular genes potentially involved in virus entry and replication, which is ex-
pected to lead to improvements in antiviral treatments. The general aim of our
study is to develop approaches for automated analysis of images from genome-
wide screens (with more than 20,000 genes generating more than 100,000 flu-
orescence images). Key tasks in this application are cell nucleus segmentation,
detection of regions with transfected cells, and quantification of the virus infec-
tion level. The approaches should be efficient, robust, and fully automatic.
In recent years, a number of approaches for cell nuclei or whole cell segmenta-
tion based on fluorescence microscopy or other microscopy techniques have been
reported (e.g., [2, 3, 4]). In high-throughput applications, approaches based on
adaptive thresholding [5, 6] proved to give good results for cell nuclei segmen-
tation, especially if the nuclei are not clustered. To separate clusters of nuclei,
watershed-based approaches are often employed (e.g., ).
In this contribution, we describe an image analysis approach as part of a
high-throughput system for genome-wide identification of cellular genes that are
important for Hepatitis C and Dengue virus replication. Currently, to our best
knowledge, there exists no image analysis system for quantifying viral signals
given a large number of images on per cell basis, i.e. which measures the status
of virus replication in transfected cells only, and combines the results from many
different and repeated experiments to produce reliable statistics. In particular,
we propose novel approaches (1) for the segmentation of cell nuclei based on
gradient thresholding, (2) for the localization of regions with transfected cells
within cell array images, and (3) for cell classification based on the infection
level with application to quality assessment of an experiment.
2 Materials and Methods
The input data in our application consists of two-channel microscopy images of
small interference RNA (siRNA) cell arrays  on which transfection reagents
and different siRNAs are spotted in a grid pattern (Fig. 1a). We have developed
an approach that comprises the following five main steps: (1) cell nuclei seg-
mentation in channel 1 (Fig. 1b), (2) measurement of the level of viral protein
expression in channel 2 stained by immunofluorescence (Fig. 1c), (3) detection
of siRNA spot areas with transfected cells (Fig. 1d), (4) classification of cells
based on their infection status, and (5) quality assessment of an experiment.
– Segmentation: To segment cell nuclei we use a gradient thresholding ap-
proach. We determine cell nucleus boundary regions by combining informa-
tion from a gradient magnitude image and an image obtained by applying the
Laplacian of Gaussian. This approach was previously applied for the segmen-
tation of characters for text recognition . In comparison to  we introduce
the following post-processing steps. First, we apply connected component la-
beling and remove small and large objects. Then, the remaining objects are
Fig.1. Image data. (a) Cell array with M × N siRNA spot areas, (b) Image of cell
nuclei for one spot area (channel 1), (c) Corresponding viral protein expression (channel
2), (d) Overlay of both channels and marked spot area
conditionally dilated while preventing merging with other components. Af-
terwards, holes in objects are filled (Fig. 2a). Finally, cell nuclei are identified
in segmented objects by applying size and circularity criteria.
– Quantification: The virus replication level is quantified for each nucleus in its
neighborhood by computing the mean of the intensities in the virus channel
(channel 2). We have implemented and compared three different approaches
for defining the neighborhood of nuclei: simple dilation (Fig. 2b), restricted
dilation by influence zones (IZ) (Fig. 2d), and region growing in IZ (Fig. 2e).
The latter two approaches rely on a partition of an image into IZ of each
nucleus (Fig. 2c), which was computed using a seeded watershed transform
of the inverted virus channel with the nuclei as initial seeds.
– Localization: Only those cells that come in contact with siRNA molecules
should be quantified and therefore a circular region with transfected cells of
known diameter must be localized in each image. Our approach consists of
three steps: (1) finding the position of a circle of known diameter that has
maximal difference between the mean virus expression level of cells inside
and outside the circle, (2) selecting those positions that have expression
level differences within a valid range, and (3) fitting of a grid with known
parameters. Spot diameter and grid parameters are known from the siRNA
spotting process. The valid range in step 2 was determined by simulations.
– Classification: To detect differences in virus infection level we use a measure
denoted as infection rate ratio: IRR = IRi/IRN, where IRi is the per-
centage of virus infected cells in siRNA spot area i and IRN is the normal
virus infection rate, i.e. the percentage of infected cells without knocked-
down genes. To compute infection rates, the cells must first be classified
as infected or non-infected. For classification we use the mean intensity in
the virus channel in the neighborhood of a cell nucleus. The classification
threshold was determined by maximizing the difference of infection rates in
positive and negative controls. In positive controls the protein production
level is blocked and therefore the signal is reduced. In negative controls the
level of virus replication is not altered.
– Quality Assessment: A large number of images need to be analyzed to derive
sound statistics. Since some of the images may be of poor quality (e.g., out-
Fig.2. Segmentation results for an image section. (a) Cell nuclei (blue), viral pro-
tein expression (red) with overlaid segmented nuclei, (b) Neighborhoods obtained by
dilation, (c) Influence zones (IZ), (d) Constrained dilation by IZ, (e) Region-growing
of-focus, no cells in certain areas, image artifacts) we need to exclude them.
We perform quality checks on two levels: (1) on the whole experiment level
and (2) on the single image level. On the whole experiment level, the main
criterion is the difference between infection rates in positive and negative
controls. If the difference is too small, the whole experiment is excluded. On
the single image level, images with too small or a too large number of cells
as compared to the average number of the whole experiment are excluded.
Prior to applying the overall approach, we performed an evaluation of our ap-
proach for cell nuclei segmentation. To obtain ground truth, two experts marked
cell nuclei in 8 randomly selected real images from 4 different experiments (2243
nuclei in total). We compared the results of our approach with that of adaptive
thresholding by Otsu’s method . With our approach we were able to segment
more than 94% of all nuclei whereas Otsu’s method yielded only about 80%. We
also studied the performance of the three approaches for defining the cell nucleus
neighborhood. For each approach, we computed infection rate ratios (IRRs) for
two experiments with 384 images each. The results of all three approaches were
similar. Therefore we use the simplest approach based on dilation.
We have applied the overall approach to more than 20,000 images of Hepati-
tis C (HCV) and Dengue Virus (DV) infected screens. The overall results of 10
repeated experiments of an HCV screen (grid 6 × 6) and of 4 repeated experi-
ments of a DV screen (grid 12×32) are presented in Fig. 3. Positive and negative
controls are marked in Fig. 3a with light and dark gray bars and in Fig. 3b,c
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
7 9 10 9 10 9 10 8 10 10 10 10 10 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
Infection Rate Ratio
0.80.86 0.93 0.99 1.05 1.11 1.17 1.23
Mean = 0.99
StdDev = 0.06
Max = 1.1
Min = 0.47
Fig.3. Infection rate ratios computed from screening experiments. Results averaged (a)
from 10 repeated experiments of an HCV screen, and (b, c) from 4 repeated experiments
of a DV screen. The infection rate ratio is represented by gray tones (see the gray tone
scale below the histogram)
they are marked at positions (a12, g5, q7, za7) and (g9, h2, p8, u5), respectively.
It turned out that we obtain a good agreement with a reduced IRRs in positive
controls as compared to IRRs in negative controls. Besides positive controls, re-
duced IRRs were also observed in other siRNA spot areas. This indicates the
applicability of the whole approach.
We have described an approach for the identification of genes involved in Hep-
atitis C and Dengue virus replication based on high-throughput screening ex-
periments. The whole approach relies on (1) a novel gradient-based approach for
segmentation of cell nuclei in fluorescence microscopy images, which increases
the number of correctly segmented objects compared to adaptive thresholding,
(2) combination of model-based circular region fitting and grid fitting for the lo-
calization of siRNA spot regions, which allows to exclude non-transfected cells,
and (3) cell classification based on the infection level. The overall approach al-
lows to fully automatically quantify a large number of images on single cell basis.
The obtained results are in good agreement with the expected behavior and en-
courage the application to images from other high-throughput experiments, in
particular, from genome-wide screens.
Acknowledgement. This work has been funded by the BMBF (FORSYS)
1. Dam EM, Pelkmans L. Systems biology of virus entry in mammalian cells. Cell
2. W¨ ahlby C, Lindblad J, Vondrus M, et al. Algorithms for cytoplasm segmentation
of fluorescence labelled cells. Anal Cell Pathol. 2002;24:101–11.
3. W¨ urflinger T, Stockhausen J, Meyer-Ebrecht D, et al. Robust automatic coregistra-
tion, segmentation, and classification of cell nuclei in multimodal cytopathological
microscopic images. Comput Med Imaging Graph. 2004;28(1–2):87–98.
4. Elter M, Daum V, Wittenberg T. Maximum-intensity-linking for segmentation of
fluorescence-stained cells. Proc MIAAB. 2006; p. 46–50.
5. Harder N, Mora-Berm´ udez F, Godinez WJ, et al. Automated analysis of the mitotic
phases of human cells in 3D fluorescence microscopy image sequences. Lect Note
Comp Sci. 2006;4190:840–8.
6. Li F, Zhou X, Ma J, et al. An automated feedback system with the hybrid model
of scoring and classification for solving over-segmentation problems in RNAi high-
content screening. J Microsc. 2007;226(2):121–32.
7. Erfle H, Simpson JC, Bastiaens PIH, et al.
screening microscopy. Biotechnol. 2004;37(3):454–62.
8. Gonzalez RC, Woods RE. Digital Image Processing. Prentice Hall; 2002.
siRNA cell arrays for high-content