DOI: 10.1145/1089803.1089807 Conference: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks, PE-WASUN 2005, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 10-13, 2005
We propose a novel routing asynchronous wakeup scheme - Adaptive Wakeup Schedule Function (AWSF), which adapts to deployment topography to support fast routing in sensor networks. Unlike most other wakeup schemes such as the random and cyclic designs, AWSF guarantees hard delay bounds, have better average delays and smaller delay variances, and eliminates the "Lonely Node" problem where nodes wakeup to find no communicable neighbours. Since AWSF assumes complete radio turn-off in the "sleep" mode, it is largely different from most data-centric wakeup schemes where the radio modules are only put to "idle" mode for "data snooping" where real energy savings cannot be achieved. We provide simulation results to support our claims and have implemented our solution on real Crossbow Mica2 motes.
"To enable such communication without out of band synchronization mechanisms, there must be some guaranteed overlap between a sender's signal and a receiver's wakeup period. While some protocols propose extending the receiver wakeup periods – , recent work shows that extending a sender's signal instead greatly improves energy efficiency , . However, the extended signal now results in increased delay and reduced energy savings in networks with moderate traffic load . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wireless sensor networks typically conserve energy by following a periodic wakeup-sleep schedule: nodes minimize idle time and spend most of their time in a low power sleep state. In order to communicate and exchange data in such a network, the current duty-cycling MAC protocols either require tight synchronization between the neighbor wakeup schedules or spend a significant amount of energy in signaling the sleeping nodes. In contrast, this paper presents Neighborhood-based Power Management (NPM), an energy efficient asynchronous MAC protocol that minimizes signaling overhead through opportunistically gained knowledge about neighbor wakeup schedules. Unlike the synchronization-based MAC protocols, NPM does not require a priori knowledge of the wakeup schedules. Using only a minimal exchange of schedule information, NPM reduces the signaling overhead by shortening the wakeup signal. Furthermore, NPM uses its wakeup signal to awaken all receivers in the neighborhood of the sender, enabling all sender-receiver pairs in that neighborhood to communicate. Our extensive evaluations show that NPM outperforms popular B-MAC, X-MAC and SCP protocols under all network conditions. NPM reduces the signaling overhead, with up to 74% savings in energy and 80% reduction in delay.
Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2010 IEEE 7th International Conference on; 12/2010
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas energy efficiency in wireless sensor network is of critical importance, idle listening has been recognized as a main source of wasted power. Many studies have proposed various approaches to scheduling the active and sleeping periods of sensor nodes, as to reduce the power consumption of idle listening. While noticing the fact that there is no universally accepted approach, one which can meet the diversity of different application, in this paper, we propose a scheduling scheme for active and sleeping periods that is based on the packet arrival pattern. More particularly, we propose an arrival model which is targeted at application characterized by bursty arrival. The bursty arrival times are assumed to be distributed exponentially with different rates for the packet arrival intra-burst and inter-burst. Based on this packet arrival model, we introduce a Bursty Arrival Dependent Sleeping Scheduling (BASS) scheme, in which each node dynamically and independently adjusts its wakeup rate. Through analysis and simulation, we evaluate the impact of the proposed scheme on the duty cycle and on the delay of the MAC layer. We show that as the bursty arrival rate decreases, the ON/OFF duty cycle decreases linearly and the MAC-layer delay is minimally affected. Our results suggest that the BASS scheme provides a superior solution for sensor network with bursty arrival. Comparing BASS scheme with S-MAC, results demonstrate 45%—70% gains in the BASS case in term of energy efficiency, without degrading performance. BASS scheme also obtains much better performance (e.g. 10 times better in the range of parameters in this paper) with the same amount of power consumption.
Proceedings of the International Conference on Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, IWCMC 2006, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, July 3-6, 2006; 01/2006
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, sensors networks are proposed for underwater industrial applications - such as the lucrative business of seismic imaging of underwater oil wells. Underwater sensing systems present a far more challenging problem to solve, given additional communication bandwidth constraints and a sparse deployment of these underwater sensor nodes. We present a suitable wakeup schedule designed for underwater monitoring applications and support our scheme with simulation results.
Industrial Informatics, 2006 IEEE International Conference on; 09/2006
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