We conducted a user study of the effect of registration error on performance of tracking distant objects in augmented reality. Categorizing error by types that are often used as specifications, we hoped to derive some insight into the ability of users to tolerate noise, latency, and orientation error. We used measurements from actual systems to derive the parameter settings. We expected all three errors to influence userspsila ability to perform the task correctly and the precision with which they performed the task. We found that high latency had a negative impact on both performance and response time. While noise consistently interacted with the other variables, and orientation error increased user error, the differences between ldquohighrdquo and ldquolowrdquo amounts were smaller than we expected. Results of userspsila subjective rankings of these three categories of error were surprisingly mixed. Users believed noise was the most detrimental, though statistical analysis of performance refuted this belief. We interpret the results and draw insights for system design.
"Two of our display cases are similar to one in this study, but the design of the study and the comparison with the other cases yields additional insight into the relationship between AR and HUDs. Livingston et al. conducted a user study to determine which display attributes, including drawing style and opacity, best express occlusion relationships among far-field objects  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ongoing research problem in Augmented Reality (AR) is to improve tracking and display technology in order to minimize registration errors. However, perfect registration is not always necessary for users to understand the intent of an augmentation. This paper describes the results of an experiment to evaluate the effects of graphical context in a Lego block placement task when the graphics are located outside of the task area. Four conditions were compared: fully registered AR; non-registered AR; a heads- up display (HUD) with the graphics always visible in the field of view; and a HUD with the graphics not always visible in the field of view. The results of this experiment indicated that registered AR outperforms both non-registered AR and graphics displayed on a HUD. The results also indicated that non-registered AR does not offer any significant performance advantages over a HUD, but is rated as less intrusive and can keep non-registered graphics from cluttering the task space.
7th IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, ISMAR 2008, Cambridge, UK, 15-18th September 2008; 01/2008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examine the effect of varying levels of immersion on the perfor- mance of a target following task in augmented reality (AR) X-ray vision. We do this using virtual reality (VR) based simulation. We analyze participant performance while varying the field of view of the AR display, as well as the reliability of the head tracking sensor as our components of immersion. In low reliability conditions, we simulate sensor dropouts by disabling the augmented view of the scene for brief time periods. Our study gives insight into the effect of tracking sensor reliability, as well as the relationship between sensor reliability and field of view on user performance in a target following task in a simulated AR system. CR Categories: I.3.7 (Computer Graphics): Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism—Augmented Reality; H.1.2 (Models and Principles): User/Machine Systems—Human Factors;
Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, VRST 2009, Kyoto, Japan, November 18-20, 2009; 01/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We tested users' depth perception of virtual objects in our mobile augmented reality (AR) system in both indoor and outdoor environments using a depth matching task. The indoor environment is characterized by strong linear perspective cues; we attempted to re-create these cues in the outdoor environment. In the indoor environment, we found an overall pattern of underestimation of depth that is typical for virtual environments and AR systems. However, in the outdoor environment, we found that subjects overestimated depth. In addition, our synthetic linear perspective cues met with a measure of success, leading users to reduce their estimate of the depth of distant objects. We describe the experimental procedure, analyze the data, present the results of the study, and discuss the implications for mobile, outdoor AR systems.
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