Improving Recovery in Weak-Voting Data Replication.
ABSTRACT Nowadays eager update everywhere replication protocols are widely proposed for replicated databases. They work together with
recovery protocols in order to provide highly available and fault-tolerant information systems. This paper proposes two enhancements
for reducing the recovery times, minimizing the recovery information to transfer. The idea is to consider on one hand a more
realistic failure model scenario –crash recovery with partial amnesia– and on the other hand to apply a compacting technique.
Moreover, it is provided amnesia support avoiding possible state inconsistencies –associated to the failure model assumed–
before starting the recovery process at recovering replicas.
- SourceAvailable from: José Enrique Armendáriz-Iñigo[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe a recovery protocol which boosts availability, fault tol-erance and performance by enabling failed network nodes to resume an active role immediately after they start recovering. The protocol is designed to work in tandem with middleware-based eager update-everywhere strategies and related group communication systems. The latter provide view synchrony, i.e., knowl-edge about currently reachable nodes and about the status of messages delivered by faulty and alive nodes. That enables a fast replay of missed updates which defines dynamic database recovery partition. Thus, speeding up the recovery of failed nodes which, together with the rest of the network, may seamlessly con-tinue to process transactions even before their recovery has completed. We spec-ify the protocol in terms of the procedures executed with every message and event of interest and outline a correctness proof.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper provides a comprehensive set of clear and rigorous specications, which may be combined to represent the guarantees of most existing GCSs. In the light of these specications, over thirty published GCS specications are surveyed. Thus, the specications serve as a unifying framework for the classication, analysis and comparison of group communication systems. The survey also discusses over a dozen dierent applications of group communication systems, shedding light on the usefulness of the presented specications. This paper is aimed at both system builders and theoretical researchers. The specication framework presented in this paper will help builders of group communication systems understand and specify their service semantics; the extensive survey will allow them to compare their service to others. Application builders will nd in this paper a guide to the services provided by a large variety of GCSs, which would help them chose the GCS appropriate for their needs. Th05/2001;
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a small number of basic concepts that can be used to explain the architecture of fault-tolerant distributed systems and we discuss a list of architectural issues that we find useful to consider when designing or examining such systems. For each issue we present known solutions and design alternatives, we discuss their relative merits and we give examples of systems which adopt one approach or the other. The aim is to introduce some order in the complex discipline of designing and understanding fault-tolerant distributed systems. 1 1 Introduction Computing systems consist of a multitude of hardware and software components that are bound to fail eventually. In many systems, such component failures can lead to unanticipated, potentially disruptive failure behavior and to service unavailability. Some systems are designed to be fault-tolerant: they either exhibit a well-defined failure behavior when components fail or mask component failures to users, that is, continue t...11/1993;
Improving Recovery in Weak-Voting Data Replication?
Luis H. Garc´ ıa-Mu˜ noz, Rub´ en de Juan-Mar´ ın, J. Enrique Armend´ ariz-´I˜ nigo,
and Francesc D. Mu˜ noz-Esco´ ı
Instituto Tecnol´ ogico de Inform´ atica - Universidad Polit´ ecnica de Valencia
Camino de Vera, s/n - 46022 Valencia, Spain
Abstract. Nowadays eager update everywhere replication protocols are widely
proposed for replicated databases. They work together with recovery protocols
in order to provide highly available and fault-tolerant information systems. This
paper proposes two enhancements for reducing the recovery times, minimizing
the recovery information to transfer. The idea is to consider on one hand a more
realistic failure model scenario –crash recovery with partial amnesia– and on the
other hand to apply a compacting technique. Moreover, it is provided amnesia
support avoiding possible state inconsistencies –associated to the failure model
assumed– before starting the recovery process at recovering replicas.
Database replicationconsists in maintainingidentical copiesof a givendatabaseat mul-
tiple network nodes. This improves performance,since clients access their local replica
or are forwarded to the less loaded one; and availability: whenever a node fails, its as-
sociated clients are silently redirected to another available one. Replication protocols
can be designed for eager or lazy replication , and for executing updates in a pri-
mary copy or at all node replicas . With eager replication we can keep all replicas
exactly synchronized at all nodes, but this could have an expensive cost. With the lazy
alternative we can introduce replication without severely affecting performance, but it
can compromise consistency. Many replication protocols are based on eager update ev-
erywhere with a read one, write all available (ROWAA) approach. As we have briefly
highlighted before, these replication protocols provide high availability. However, only
a few of them deal with the possible reconnection of the failed node, which is managed
by recovery protocols [3,4,5,6].
The aim of the recovery protocols is to bring failed or temporarily disconnected
nodes back into the network as fully functional peers, by reconciling the database state
of these recovering nodes with that of the active nodes. This could be done by logging
transactions and transferring this log to recovering nodes so they can process missed
transactions, or transferring the current state of the items that have been updated in the
database since the recovering node failed.
?Work supported by FEDER, the Spanish MEC grant TIN2006-14738-C02 and the Mexican
DGEST and SES-ANUIES.
M. Xu et al. (Eds.): APPT 2007, LNCS 4847, pp. 131–140, 2007.
c ? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007
132L.H. Garc´ ıa-Mu˜ noz et al.
This paper is focused in the recovery protocol for eager update everywhere replica-
tion protocols, proposing some optimizations to the work presented in . These en-
hancements include amnesia support, and a better performance reducing the amount of
data to save in the actions done before recovering and the amount of data to transfer at
recovering time. The main idea in the last case is to compact recovery data eliminating
The rest of this paper is distributed as follows. Section 2 provides the system model.
Section 3 deals with the basic recovery protocol. Section 4 explains the necessary ac-
tions for the amnesia support. Next, Section 5 relates the process of compacting recov-
ery information. Later, Section 6 shows the simulation results followed by the related
works in Section 7. In the final Section 8, we provide our conclusions.
The basic recovery protocol has been designed for database replicated systems com-
posed by several replicas –each one in a different node–. These nodes belong to a par-
transmission time is bounded. The database state is fully replicated in each node.
Thisreplicatedsystemuses agroupcommunicationsystem (GCS).Point-to-point
and broadcast deliveries are supported. The minimum guarantee provided is a FIFO
and reliable communication. A group membership service is also assumed, that knows
in advance the identity of all potential system nodes. These nodes can join the group
and leave it, raising a view change event. Therefore, each time a membership change
happens, i.e. any time the failure or the recovery of one of the member nodes occurs, it
supplies consistent information about the current set of reachable members as a view.
The group membership service combined with the GCS provides Virtual Synchrony 
guarantees, which is achieved using sending view delivery multicast  enforcing that
messages are delivered in the view they were sent. A primary component  model is
followed in case of network partitioning.
The replicated system assumes the crash-recovery with partial-amnesia  model.
This implies that an outdated node must be recovered from two “lost of updateness”:
forgotten state and missed state. This assumption supports a more realistic and precise
way to perform the recovery process. So the assumed model allows to recover failed
nodes from their previous crashing state maintaining their assigned node identifiers.
3 Basic Recovery Protocol
Our basic proposal is inspired in the recovery protocol presented in . It has been
designed for eager update everywhere database replication protocols and proposes the
use of DB-partitions (see below). It was originally designed for providing recovery
support for the ERP and TORPE  replication protocols. Such protocols use a voting
termination approach , and can be considered as weak voting replication protocols
. This basic recovery protocol can be outlined as follows:
– The system has a database table named MISSED, which maintains all the infor-
mation that will be needed for recoverypurposes. Each time a new view is installed
Improving Recovery in Weak-Voting Data Replication133
a new entry is inserted in the MISSED table if there are failed nodes. Each entry
in MISSED table contains: the view identifier, the identifiers of crashed nodes in
this view –SITES–,and the identifiers list of data items modified during this view
–OID LIST–. The two first ones are set at the beginning of the view, while the
last one grows as long as the view passes.
– When a set of crashed nodes reconnects to the replicated system, the recovery pro-
tocol will choose one node as the recoverer with a deterministic function. Then
in a first step the recoverer transfers the metadata recovery information to all re-
connected nodes. This metadata information contains: the identifiers of modified
items, and the crashed node identifiers in each view lost by the oldest crashed node
being recovered.The per-view metadata generates a DB-partition during the recov-
ery process; i.e., such items will be blocked while they are being transferred to the
recovering node, logically partitioning the database. These DB-partitions are also
used in order to block in each replica the current user transactions whose modified
items conflict with its DB-partitions. Subsequently, the recoverer starts to recover
each recovering node view by view. For each lost view, the recoverer transfers the
state of the modified items duringthis view. And, once the view has been recovered
in the recovering node, it notifies the recovery of this view to all alive nodes. The
recoveryprocessends in each recovering nodeonceit has updatedall its lost views.
– As a transaction broadcast is performedspreading two messages –remote and com-
mit–, it is possible that a reconnected node receives only the second one, without
any informationabout the updates to be committed. In this case the replicationpro-
transaction writesets are maintained in the sender node until the commit message is
But this recovery protocol presents the following two problems:
– Amnesia phenomenon. Although we are assuming the crash-recovery with partial
amnesia  failure model, many systems do not handle it in a perfect way. This
problem arises because once the replication protocol propagates the commit mes-
sage associated to one transaction, and it is delivered, the system assumes that this
transaction is being committed locally in all replicas. But this assumption even
using strong virtual synchrony  is not always true. It is possible that a replica
receives a transaction commit message, but before applying the commit the replica
crashes, as it is commented in  –the basic idea is that message delivery does
not imply correct message processing–. The problem will arise when this crashed
node reconnects to the replicated system, because it will not have committed this
transaction and the rest of the system will not include among the necessary recov-
ery information the updates performed by this transaction, arising then a problem
of replicated state inconsistency.
– Large MISSED table and redundant recovery information. If in the system there
are long-term crashed nodes –meaning nodes failed during many views– and there
are also high update rates it is possible that the MISSED table enlarges signifi-
cantly with high levels of redundant information, situation that is strongly discour-
aged. Redundant recovery information will appear because it is possible that the
134L.H. Garc´ ıa-Mu˜ noz et al.
same item has been modified in several views where the crashed nodes set is very
similar. In this case if an item is modified during several views, only knowing the
last time –meaning the last view– it was updated is enough. Therefore, it will be
interesting to apply algorithms that avoid redundant recovery information, because
In the following section we will present and study different approaches for solving
these problems improving the basic recovery protocol.
4 Amnesia Support
In order to provide amnesia support different approaches can be considered. These ap-
proaches can be classified depending on which recovery information they use. On one
hand, there are the ones using the broadcast messages –log-based– [3,4] and, on the
otherhandthereare theonesusingthe informationmaintainedin thedatabase–version-
But beforedescribinghow the amnesia supportcan be providedin the basic recovery
protocol, it must be considered how this amnesia phenomenon manifests. In , it is
said that the amnesia phenomenonmanifests at two different levels:
– Transport level. At this level, amnesia implies that the system does not remem-
ber which messages have been received. In fact, the amnesia implies that received
messages non-persistentlystoredare lost whenthe nodecrashes, generatinga prob-
lem when they belong to transactions that the replicated system has committed but
which have not been already committed in the crashed node.
– Replica level. The amnesia is manifested here in the fact that the node “forgets”
which were the really committed transactions.
Hereafter we detail a log-based solution for the amnesia problem. There are other
amnesia supporting techniques –e.g., a version-based approach – but are not pre-
sented here to due space constraints.
The informationmaintainedin orderto performthe amnesiarecoveryprocesswill be
the broadcast replication messages. In this replication protocol two messages for each
propagated transaction: remote and commit. The amnesia recovery must be performed
before starting the recovery of missed updates –the latter will be done by the basic re-
coveryprotocol–.Theamnesiarecoveryprocesswill consist in reapplyingthemessages
belonging to non really committed transactions.
A transport-levelsolutionconsists ineach nodestoringpersistentlythereceivedmes-
sages, maintainingthemas longas the associated transaction,t, has notbeen committed
and discarding them as soon as t its really committed in the replica. But, the message
persist process must be performedatomically inside the delivery process as already dis-
cussed in  with its “successful delivery” concept. Moreover,messages belonging to
aborted or rolled-back transactions must be also deleted.
Once the amnesia phenomenonis solved at transport level, it is necessary to manage
the amnesia problem at replica level. At this level the amnesia implies that the system
Improving Recovery in Weak-Voting Data Replication135
can not remember which were the really committed transactions. Even for those trans-
actions for which the “commit” message was applied, it is possible for the system to
fail during the commit. Then the amnesia recovery process in a replica will consist in
persistently stored messages in this replica that have not been already deleted, because
it implies that the corresponding transactions have not been committed in the replica.
These messages are applied in the same order as they were originally received.
It also must be noticed, that in this process is not needed to apply the remote mes-
sages whose associated commit messages have not been received, because it implies
that they have been committed in the subsequent view, and therefore their changes are
applied during the recovery of its first missed view.
Finally, once the amnesia recoveryprocess ends, the basic recoveryprotocol mecha-
nism can start.
5Compacting Recovery Information
In order to increase the performance at the moment of determining and transferring the
necessary information for the synchronization of recovering nodes, we propose some
modifications based on packing information that enhance the basic recovery protocol
described in . This could be done by compactingthe records in the MISSED table,
and with this, minimize the items to transmit and to apply them in the recovering node,
reducing thus the transmission and synchronization time.
These item identifiers can be packed due to the fact that the recovery information
only maintains the identifiers of updated items. The state of these items is retrieved by
the recoverer from the database at recovering time. Moreover, if a recovering node, k,
has to recover the state of an item modified in different views lost by k it will receive
as many times the item value, but transferring its state only once is enough.As a conse-
quence,it is not relevant to repeat the identifier of an updateditem across several views,
being only necessary to maintain it in the last view it was modified.
We consider that the actions for the amnesia support are performed during the exe-
cution of user transactions. Whenever one (or more than one) node fails, the recovery
protocol starts the execution of the actions to advance the recovery of failed nodes. To
this end, when a transaction commits, the field which contains the identifiers of the
updated items, OID LIST, will be updated in the following way:
1. For each item in the WriteSet, the OID LIST is scanned to verify if the item is
already included in it or not. If it is not, it is included and is looked for in previous
views OID LIST, eliminating it from the OID LIST in which it appears, com-
pacting thus the OID LIST, i.e. the information to transfer when a node recovers.
2. If as a result of this elimination, an OID LIST is emptied, the content of the field
SITES is included into the field SITES of the next record, and the empty record
in the table MISSED can be eliminated.
When a node reconnects to a replicated system, the new view is installed and the
actions for the amnesia recovery are performed locally at the recovering node. This is
136L.H. Garc´ ıa-Mu˜ noz et al.
a lightweight process (i.e. only a few stored messages have to be processed) in com-
parison to the database state recovery process itself. The other nodes know who is the
recovering node, and every one performs locally the next actions:
1. The MISSED table is scanned lookingfor the recoveringnode in the field SITES
until the view that contains the recovering node is found. The items for which the
recovering node needs to update its state are the elements of OID LIST of this
view and the subsequent views.
2. At the recoverer node, the recovery information is sent to the recovering node ac-
cording to the basic protocol.
3. Oncetherecoveringnodehas confirmedtheupdateofaview,thenodeis eliminated
from the SITES field in this view, and if it is the last item, also the record that
contains this view is eliminated.
4. If a recoverernode fails during the recoveringprocess, then another node is elected
to be the new recoverer, according to the basic protocol. And it will create the
partitions pending to be transferred, according to the previous points, and then it
will perform the item transfer to recovering nodes, again as in the basic protocol.
It is importantto note that in a view changeconsisting in the join and leave of several
nodes, we must first update the information about failed nodes, and later execute the
We have simulated the compacting enhancement in order to know which level of im-
provement provides. We have considered three replicated scenarios with 5, 9 and 25
nodes each one. The replicated database has 100000 data items. All simulations start
having all replicas updated and alive. Then, we start to crash nodes one by one –
installing a new view each time a node crashes–, until the system reaches the minimum
primary partition in each scenario. At this point two different recovery sequences are
simulated. In the first one, denoted as order 1, the crashed nodes are reconnected one
by one in the same order as they crashed, while in the second, denoted as order 2, they
are reconnected one by one but reversing their crash order. In both cases, each time a
node reconnects a new view is installed, and immediately the system starts its recov-
ery, ending its recovery process before reconnecting the following one. In any installed
view we assume that the replicated system performs 250 transactions successfully, and
each transaction modifies 20 database items. All simulation parametersare described in
The items in the writeset are obtainedrandomlywith a uniformdistribution.We have
not used neither a hot spot, as in other previous works , nor typical workloads as
TPC-W or TPC-C . In both cases, they would be more favorable environments for
the compacting method than a uniform distribution, since they suppose more frequent
access to a set of items of the database, removinga big amount of items in the compact-
ing proccess. We have also assumed a fast network, and this reduces the performance
difference between the normal and compacting recoveries, since it only depends on the
Improving Recovery in Weak-Voting Data Replication137
Table 1. Simulator Parameters
Number of items in the database
Number of servers
Transactions per view
Maximum message size
CPU time for network operation
5, 9, 25
Time for a read
Time for a write
Time for an identifier read
20 modified items Time for an identifier write
4 bytesCPU time for an I/O operation
200 bytesTime for point to point message 0,07 ms
64 Kbytes Time for broadcast message
Table 2. Recovery times in seconds (N = Nodes, V = Views)
BasicCompacted Basic Compacted
Order N V
Avg StdDev Avg StdDevOrder N V
2 165.8 0.23 161.7 0.21
3 248.7 0.18 236.7 0.16
4 331.6 0.19 308.1 0.18
3 248.7 0.17 236.7 0.18
5 414.5 0.18 376.0 0.17
7 580.4 0.18 501.9 0.17
25 12 995.1 0.18 767.2 0.12
25 3 248.7 0.19 236.7 0.16
25 11 912.0
25 13 1077.9 0.19
25 15 1243.8 0.19
25 17 1409.6 0.19
25 19 1575.5 0.19 1042.9 0.09
25 21 1741.3 0.19 1105.4 0.08
25 23 1907.2 0.18 1162.0 0.07
amountof transferreditems. If we hada slow network,such differencewouldhavebeen
bigger.We have made one hundredrepetitionsfor everyexperimentobtainingwith this,
the guarantees of a low dispersion (see Table 2).
This simulation has not considered the costs of: managing the amnesia problem, and
recovery information compacting. The amnesia problem, as it has been said before, is
solved using a log-based approach, persisting the delivered messages during the repli-
cation work, and applying those not committed during the amnesia recovery process.
Thus,it implies two costs: one in the replicationworkand anotherin the recoverywork.
The first cost is not considered because does not happen in the recovery process. The
second one, although appears in the recovery process, is not considered because it is
very low compared to the recovery process itself –usually it will consist in applying
few messages (writesets) and in our simulation are very small–. The recovery informa-
tion compacting cost is not taken into account because this work is performed online,
therefore its associated overhead penalizes only the replication work performance, but
not the recovery.
138L.H. Garc´ ıa-Mu˜ noz et al.
The simulation results show that the more views a crashed node loses the better the
compacting technique behaves, which is a logical result. In fact, when more updates a
crashed node misses the probability of modifying the same item increases. Both in the
Table 2 and in the Figure 1 we can observe the same behavior. When a crashed node
has lost only one view the compacting technique does not provide any improvement
because it has been unable to work. But, as long as the crashed node misses more views
the compacting technique provides better results.
Fig.1. Item Compactness: (a) 5 nodes, (b) 9 nodes, (c) 25 nodes
It must be also noticed that the basic recovery protocol could arrive to transfer a
greater number of items than items has the original database. This occurs because it
transfers for each lost view all the modified (and created items in this view) indepen-
dently they are transferred when recovering other views where these items have been
also modified. This situation is avoided by our recovery protocol enhancement. And in
the worst case the proposedsolutionwill transferthe whole databasebecauseduringthe
inactivity periodof the recoverednodeall the items of the database have been modified.
Obviously, we must say that the improvement provided by our approach depends on
the replicated system load activity, the update work rate, and the changed items rate.
For the first two ones, we can consider in a general way that when higher they are better
our compacting technique behaves. This is because the probabilities of modifying the
same item in differentviews increase. This considerationdrives us to the changeditems
rate, which is really the most important parameter. It tells us if the performed updates
are focused in few items or not. Then for our technique it is interesting that changes are
focused in as few items as possible. In fact, the worst scenario for our technique will be
the one in which all the modifications are performed in different items.
Improving Recovery in Weak-Voting Data Replication139
As final conclusion, we can say that our enhanced recovery protocol works better in
some of the worst scenarios from a recovery point of view: when the crashed node has
lost a lot of updates and the changed items rate is not very high.
For solving the recoveryproblem database replication literature has largely recom-
mendedthe crashrecoveryfailuremodeluse as it is proposedin [3,4,5,6], while process
replication has traditionally adopted the fail stop failure model. The use of different ap-
proaches for these two areas is due to the fact that usually the first one manages large
data amounts, and it adopts the crash recovery with partial amnesia failure model in
order to minimize the recovery information to transfer.
The crash-recovery with partial amnesia failure model adoption implies that the as-
sociated recovery protocols have to solve the amnesia problem. This problem has been
considered in different papers as [10,11,15] and different recovery protocols have pre-
sented ways for dealing with it. The CLOB recovery protocol presented in  and the
Checking Version Numbers proposed in  support amnesia managing it in a log-based
and version-based way, respectively.
In regard to the compactness technique, uses it in order to optimize the database
recovery. In this case, this technique is used to minimize the information size that must
be maintained and subsequently transferred in order to perform the recovery processes.
Such paper also presents experimental results about the benefits introduced by using
this technique, reaching up to 32% time cost reductions.
The background idea of our compacting technique is very similar to the one used in
one of the recovery protocols presented in . This protocol maintained in a database
table the identifiers of the modified objects when there were failed nodes. Each one
of these object identifiers was inserted in a different row, storing at the same time the
identifier of the transaction which modified the object. Therefore, when an object was
modified the system checked if its identifier was already inserted in this table. If it
has not, the protocol created a new entry where inserted the identifier object and the
transaction identifier. If it already existed an entry with this object identifier, the pro-
tocol simply updated in this entry the transaction identifier. So, this recovery protocol
also avoids redundant information, but it uses a more refined metadata granularity –
transaction identifier– than our enhanced protocol –view identifier–.
In this paper we have reviewed the functionality of the original recovery protocol de-
scribed in . We have enhanced it providing an accurated amnesia support and incor-
porating a compacting method for improving its performance.
The amnesia support has been improved using a log-based technique which consists
in persisting the messages as soon as they are delivered in each node, in fact they must
be persisted atomically in the delivery process.
Our compacting technique avoids that any data object identifier appears more than
onceinthe MISSEDtable.Then,this mechanismreducesthesize ofrecoverymessages,
140L.H. Garc´ ıa-Mu˜ noz et al.
Tests have been made with a simulation model and the advantages of the enhanced
recoveryprotocolhave been verified when comparingthe results of both protocols. The
obtained results have pointed out how our proposed compacting technique provides
better results when the number of lost views by a crashed node increases. Thus, our
compacting technique has improved the recovery protocol performance for recoveries
of long-term failure periods.
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