A simple analog instrumentation for electrical impedance tomography is developed and calibrated using the practical phantoms. A constant current injector consisting of a modified Howland voltage controlled current source fed by a voltage controlled oscillator is developed to inject a constant current to the phantom boundary. An instrumentation amplifier, 50 Hz notch filter and a narrow band pass filter are developed and used for signal conditioning. Practical biological phantoms are developed and the forward problem is studied to calibrate the EIT-instrumentation. An array of sixteen stainless steel electrodes is developed and placed inside the phantom tank filled with KCl solution. 1 mA, 50 kHz sinusoidal current is injected at the phantom boundary using adjacent current injection protocol. The differential potentials developed at the voltage electrodes are measured for sixteen current injections. Differential voltage signal is passed through an instrumentation amplifier and a filtering block and measured by a digital multimeter. A forward solver is developed using finite element method in MATLAB 7.0 for solving the EIT governing equation. Differential potentials are numerically calculated using the forward solver with a simulated current and bathing solution conductivity. Measured potential data is compared with the differential potentials calculated for calibrating the instrumentation to acquire the voltage data suitable for better image reconstruction.
"Till date, Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)     has been researched extensively in the medical field    as well as in other areas like industrial process control , chemical engineering , geotechnical research  and biotechnology  due to its several advantages    over other computed tomographic techniques . Practical phantoms [20, 33–35] with surface electrodes    are used to assess the performance of EIT systems for their validation, calibration and comparison purposes. In EIT, the impedance images are reconstructed from the surface potentials developed by a constant current signal injected to the boundary (δΩ) of the domain (Ω) to be imaged (figure 1). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is very essential to visualise the internal condition of human body not only for studying the anatomy and physiology, but also for diagnosing a disease. Physicians always try to analyze an organ or body part in order to study its physiological and anatomical status for understanding and/or treating its illness. Thus, it is always requisite to introduce the diagnostic tool called medical imaging. The period of medical imaging started in 1895, when Roentgen discovered the powerful invisible rays called X-rays. Gradually the medical imaging introduced X-Ray CT, Gamma Camera, Positron emission tomography (PET), Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Ultra SonoGraphy (USG). Recently, medical imaging field is more advanced with comparatively newer tomographic imaging modalities like Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT), Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT), Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), and Photoacaustic Tomography (PAT). The EIT has been extensively researched in different fields of science and engineering due to its several advantages. In correlation with the application of the EIT in the medical field, thoracic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is used to diagnose patients suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for monitoring their conditions ranging from dynamic shifting of body fluids to lung aeration, right at the bedside. Moreover, EIT-derived numeric parameters would help the physician to evaluate the state of the lung of a patient under observation. Thus, here we have performed a Finite Element Method based simulation study for monitoring the condition of lungs and heart of ARDS patients. Therefore, a finite element method (FEM) model of human thorax in three dimensional platform with FEM Multiphysics software is created and tested with new ventilation indices regarding their ability to quantitatively describe structural changes in the lung due to the gravitationally dependent lung collapse. Additionally, analysis is made to find the electrode pairs capable of separating the lung and heart activity when a particular amount of constant current is injected through them, are also carried out. Finally, a real time EIT system using 16 Ag-AgCl electrodes are developed to get the image of human thorax. The data are collected using the adjacent current injection technique and are plotted using FEM Multiphysics software. The reconstructed FEM images using the forward solver of EIT method shows the approximate area of the thorax (lungs, heart etc.) under observation. This chapter will present a brief overview on application of EIT for monitoring of the lung fluid movement and estimation of lung area in a human being alongwith physical and mathematical aspect with a goal to achieve a system having higher potential to cater medical challenges in lung oriented diseases.
Next Generation Sensors and Systems, 1 edited by Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, 07/2015: chapter 8: pages 161-190; Springer International Publishing., ISBN: 978-3-319-21670-6
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Radio Frequency (RF) based digital data transmission scheme with 8 channel encoder/decoder ICs is proposed for surface electrode switching of a 16-electrode wireless Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) system. A RF based wireless digital data transmission module (WDDTM) is developed and the electrode switching of a EIT system is studied by analyzing the boundary data collected and the resistivity images of practical phantoms. An analog multiplexers based electrode switching module (ESM) is developed with analog multiplexers and switched with parallel digital data transmitted by a wireless transmitter/receiver (T-x/R-x) module working with radio frequency technology. Parallel digital bits are generated using NI USB 6251 card working in LabVIEW platform and sent to transmission module to transmit the digital data to the receiver end. The transmitter/receiver module developed is properly interfaced with the personal computer (PC) and practical phantoms through the ESM and USB based DAQ system respectively. It is observed that the digital bits required for multiplexer operation are sequentially generated by the digital output (D/O) ports of the DAQ card. Parallel to serial and serial to parallel conversion of digital data are suitably done by encoder and decoder ICs. Wireless digital data transmission module successfully transmitted and received the parallel data required for switching the current and voltage electrodes wirelessly. 1 mA, 50 kHz sinusoidal constant current is injected at the phantom boundary using common ground current injection protocol and the boundary potentials developed at the voltage electrodes are measured. Resistivity images of the practical phantoms are reconstructed from boundary data using EIDORS. Boundary data and the resistivity images reconstructed from the surface potentials are studied to assess the wireless digital data transmission system. Boundary data profiles of the practical phantom with different configurations show that the multiplexers are operating in the required sequence for common ground current injection protocol. The voltage peaks obtained at the proper positions in the boundary data profiles proved the sequential operation of multiplexers and successful wireless transmission of digital bits. Reconstructed images and their image parameters proved that the boundary data are successfully acquired by the DAQ system which in turn again indicates a sequential and proper operation of multiplexers as well as the successful wireless transmission of digital bits. Hence the developed RF based wireless digital data transmission module (WDDTM) is found suitable for transmitting digital bits required for electrode switching in wireless EIT data acquisition system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conductivity image reconstruction is studied with a Block Matrix based Multiple Regularization (BMMR) technique in Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) using practical phantoms. The response matrix (JTJ) is partitioned into several sub-block matrices and the largest element of each sub-block matrices is taken as regularization parameter for the nodes of the FEM mesh contained by that sub-block. Boundary potential data are collected from practical phantoms with different inhomogeneity configurations and the conductivity images are reconstructed in a Model Based Iterative Image Reconstruction (MoBIIR) algorithm. Conductivity images, reconstructed with BMMR technique, are compared with the images obtained with Single-step Tikhonov Regularization (STR) and modified Levenberg-Marquardt Regularization (LMR) methods. Results show that BMMR technique reduces the reconstruction error and reconstruct the better conductivity images by improving the conductivity profile of the domain under test for all the phantoms. Image analysis showed that the BMMR method improves image contrast parameters, conductivity profiles, and spatial resolution of the reconstructed images.
IEEE World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies 2011(WICT-2011), Mumbai, India; 01/2011
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