ENSM-SE at CLEF 2005: Using a Fuzzy Proximity Matching Function.
ABSTRACT Starting from the idea that the closer the query terms in a document are to each other the more relevant the document, we propose an information retrieval method that uses the degree of fuzzy proximity of key terms in a document to compute the relevance of the document to the query. Our model handles Boolean queries but, contrary to the traditional extensions of the basic Boolean information retrieval model, does not use a proximity operator explicitly. A single parameter makes it possible to control the proximity degree required. We explain how we construct the queries and report the results of our experiments in the ad-hoc monolingual French task of the CLEF 2005 evaluation campaign.
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ABSTRACT: We investigate the application of a novel relevance ranking technique, cover density ranking, to the requirements of Web-based information retrieval, where a typical query consists of a few search terms and a typical result consists of a page indicating several potentially relevant documents. Traditional ranking methods for information retrieval, based on term and inverse document frequencies, have been found to work poorly in this context. Under the cover density measure, ranking is based on term proximity and cooccurrence. Experimental comparisons show performance that compares favorably with previous work.Information Processing & Management 03/2000; · 1.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper suggests the use of proximity measurement in combination with the Okapi probabilistic model. First, using the Okapi system, our investigation was carried out in a distributed retrieval framework to calculate the same relevance score as that achieved by a single centralized index. Second, by applying a term-proximity scoring heuristic to the top documents returned by a keyword-based system, our aim is to enhance retrieval performance. Our experiments were conducted using the TREC8, TREC9 and TREC10 test collections, and show that the suggested approach is stable and generally tends to improve retrieval effectiveness especially at the top documents retrieved.12/2002: pages 79-79;
Conference Paper: Effective Retrieval of Structured Documents.Proceedings of the 17th Annual International ACM-SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval. Dublin, Ireland, 3-6 July 1994 (Special Issue of the SIGIR Forum); 01/1994
ENSM-SE at CLEF 2005 : Uses of fuzzy
proximity matching function
Annabelle MERCIER, Amelie IMAFOUO and Michel BEIGBEDER
Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint Etienne (ENSM-SE)
158 cours Fauriel 42023 Saint Etienne Cedex 2 FRANCE
August 19, 2005
Based on the idea that the closer the query terms in a document are, the more relevant
this document is, we propose a information retrieval method based on a fuzzy proximity
degree of term occurences to compute document relevance to a query. Our model is
able to deal with Boolean queries, but contrary to the traditional extensions of the basic
Boolean information retrieval model, it does not explicitly use a proximity operator. A
single parameter allows to control the proximity degree required. We explain how we
construct the queries and we report the results of the experiments of the CLEF 2005
campaign before the conclusion.
Categories and Subject Descriptors
H.3 [Information Storage and Retrieval]: H.3.4 Systems and Software
Proximity, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy proximity, term density
In information retrieval domain, systems are founded on three basic ones models: The Boolean
model, the vector model and the probabilistic model which were derived within many varia-
tions (extended Boolean models, models based on fuzzy sets theory, generalized vector space
model,...) . Though they are all based on weak representations of documents: either sets of
terms or bags of terms. In the first case, what the information retrieval system knows about a
document is if it contains or not a given term. In the second case, the system knows the number
of occurence – term frequency, tf – of a given term in each document. So whatever is the order of
the terms in the documents, they share the same index representation if they use the same terms.
The worthy of note exceptions are most of the Boolean model implementations which propose a
near operator . This operator is a kind of and but with the constraint that the different
terms are within a window of size n, where n is an integral value. The set of retrieved documents
can be restricted with this operator, for instance, it is possible to discriminate documents about
”data structures” and those about ”data about concrete structures”. The result is an increase in
precision of the system . But the Boolean systems that implement a near operator share the
same limitation as any basic Boolean system : These systems are not able to rank the retrieved
documents because with this model a document is or is not relevant to a query. In fact, differ-
ent extensions were proposed to the basic Boolean systems to circumvent this limitation. These
extensions represents the documents with some kind of term weights most of the time computed
on a tf basis. Then they apply some combining formulas to compute the document score given
the term weigths and the query tree. But these extensions are not compatible with the near
operator. So some works defined models that attempt to directly score the documents by taking
into account the proximity of the query terms within them.
2 Many uses of proximity
Three methods were proposed to score the documents by taking into account some set of intervalls
containing the query terms. These methods differ in the set of intervalls that are selected in a
first step, and then in the formulas used to compute a score for a given interval. The method of
Clarke and al.  selects the shortest intervals that contains all the query terms (This constraint
is relaxed if there are not enough retrieved documents), so the intervals can not be nested. In the
methods of Hawking and al. , for each query term occurence, the shortest interval containing
all the query terms is selected, thus the selected intervals can nest. Rasolofo and al.  chose to
select intervals only containing two terms of the query, but with the additionnal constraint that
the interval is shorter than five words. Moreover, the passage retrieval methods use indirectly the
notion of proximity. In fact, in several methods, document ranking is doing by selecting documents
which have passages with high density of query terms that-is-to-say documents where the query
terms are closed [11, 3, 6]. The next section presents our method based on term proximity to score
3 Fuzzy proximity interpretation of queries
To address the problem of scoring the documents by taking into account the relative order of the
words in the document, we have defined a new method based on a fuzzy proximity between each
position in the document text and a query. First, given a document d and a term t, we define a term
proximity function wd,t. We can use different types of kernel (hamming, rectangular, gaussian) for
the function but a triangular one is computed. A k constant controls the support of the function
and this support represents the extent of each term occurence influence. This function reaches its
maximum (value 1) at each occurence of the term t in the document d and linearly decreases on
each side down to 0. So for each query term t, we determine the fuzzy proximity at each position
of the document d retrieved. When the zone of influence of two terms occurrences overlaps in a
document position x the value of the nearest term occurrence is taken so:
i∈Occ(t,d)f(x − i)
where Occ(t,d) is the set of occurrence positions of term t in the document d and f the influence
The figures 1 and 2 show the fuzzy proximity function wA(resp. wB) for the term A (resp.
B) in the document d0and d1.
The query model is that of the classical Boolean model: A tree with terms on the leaves an
OR or AND operators on the internal nodes. Given a query q, the term proximity functions
located on the query tree leaves are combined in the query tree with usual formulas pertaining to
the fuzzy set theory. We compute here the fuzzy proximity of the query. So the fuzzy proximity
is computed by :
for a disjunctive node and by
d1 A fuzzy
Figure 1: Document 1 – In order, we show wd1
AOR Band wd1
d2 A fuzzy
Figure 2: Document 2 – In order, we show wd2
AOR Band wd2
for a conjunctive node.
So we obtain a function wd,q from the set of positions in the document text to the interval
[0,1]. The result of the integration of this function is used as the score of the document :
Finally, the computed score s(q,d) depends on fuzzy proximity function and allows to rank docu-
ment according to query term proximity.
4 Experiments and evaluation
We carried out experiments on the CLEF 2004 evaluation campaign1test collection. We use the
retrieval tool Lucy that which is based on the Okapi BM-25 information retrieval model . to
index this collection. This tool is adapted to our method because it keeps in the index the terms
positions of the documents. thus, we extend the tool to compute similarity values for our fuzzy
proximity matching function.
Documents in the CLEF 2005 test collection are newspapers articles in XML format SDA and
Le Monde of the years 1994 and 1995. For each document (tag <DOC>), we keep the fields <DOCNO>
with the tag and the document number by Lucy, the textual contents of the tags <TX>, <LD>,
<TI>, <ST> for SDA French and <TEXT>, <LEAD1>, <TITLE> for Le Monde 1995. We used the
topics and the relevance judgements to evaluate the different methods by the trec eval program.
4.1Building the queries
Each topic has three tags: <FR-title>, <FR-desc>, <FR-narr>. We built three set of queries for
our experiments. Queries are either manually or automatically built from the textual contents of
the ”title” and the ”description” tags.
For automatic built queries (two sets): For the first set, a query is made of terms from the
”title” field; for the second set, a query is made of terms from the ”description” field, stop words2
are removed. Below we give the results for the first set of queries. Let show the steps for building
an automatic query using the ”title” by giving an example with the topic 278. The original topic
is expressed by :
<num> 278 </num>
<FR-title> Les moyens de transport pour handicaps </FR-title>
<FR-desc> A quels problmes doivent faire face les personnes handicapes
physiques lorsquelles empruntent les transports publics et quelles
solutions sont proposes ou adoptes? </FR-desc>
<FR-narr> Les documents pertinents devront dcrire les difficults
auxquelles doivent faire face les personnes diminues physiquement
lorsquelles utilisent les transports publics et/ou traiter des progrs
accomplis pour rsoudre ces problmes. </FR-narr>
First, the number and the title fields are extracted so we have : <num> C278 </num>
<FR-title> Les moyens de transport pour handicaps </FR-title> And we compact like this : 278
moyens transport handicapes
From this query, we make some derivations “automatically” :
278 moyens transport handicapes
conjunctive fuzzy proximity 249 moyens & transport & handicapes
disjunctive fuzzy proximity 249 moyens | transport | handicapes
Manual built queries, (one set): are made of terms from the ”title” field and additionnaly
terms from the ”description” field. Moreover, we add the plurial form of the terms and the terms
derivation to compensate the Lucy tool lack of stemming. We thus obtain queries that are con-
junction of disjunctions of the different derivations of the terms. On the other hand, the evaluation
by the Lucy tool uses flat queries that are of different derivations of the terms. We give an ex-
ample with the topic 278 as previously: Lucy 278 moyen moyens transport transports handicap
stemming fuzzy proximity 278 (moyen | moyens) & (transport | transports) & (handicap | handicape
4.2Building the result lists
We compare the Okapi model and our fuzzy method with different values of k. As we know on one
hand that the Okapi method is one of the best performing one and on the other hand a previous
study showed that the proximity based methods improve retrieval , we decide to merge the
Okapi results list with the results lists provided by proximity based methods. Consequently, if
one of the proximity based method does not retrieve enough documents, then its results list is
supplemented by the documents from the Okapi results list that have not yet been retrieved by
proximity based methods; the maximum number of documents retrieved is 1,000.
In the officials runs, the queries are constructed :
1. automatically with terms conjunction of title field and test with k = 20 (run RIMfuzzET020)
and k = 50 (run RIMfuzzET050),
2. manually with terms of three fields and test with k = 50 (run RIMfuzzLemme050) and
k = 80 (run RIMfuzzLemme080).
2stop words removed: ` a, aux, au, chez, et, dans, des, de, du, en, la, les, le, par, sur, uns, unes, une, un, d’, l’
Figure 3: Automatic runs
Figure 4: Manual runs
For the runs RIMLucyET and RIMLucyLemme, the queries are flat (bag of terms) and these runs
provide two baselines produced by using basic Lucy search engine. The recall precision results
are provided in the figure 4.3 for the automatic runs and in the figure 4.3 for manual runs.
With the values chosen for the officials runs, unfortunally, the Lucy method performs better
than the fuzzy proximity ones but when manuals queries are used the result are better or equal
to the Lucy ones.
Amount the unofficial runs, we change the value of the k constant to enlarge the area of
influence of a term occurrence. In the figure we notice that the largest the area is the better the
results are. The fuzzy proximity method perform better with manual queries (run RIMLemme*)
because we retrieved more documents with our method so the proximity between query terms is
the main factor to select and rank documents.
We have presented and experimented our information retrieval model which takes into account
the position of the term occurences in the document to compute a relevance score on the CLEF
2005 Ad-Hoc french test collection. We notice that the higher the area of influence of term is the
better the results are. In futher experiments, we are going to use another influence function more
flexible which allows to adapt the value of k constant to the number of retrieved documents. We
think also that the results can be improved by using a stemming step before indexing and by use
Figure 5: Unofficial automatic and manual runs
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