Conference Paper

Tradeoff Exploration between Reliability, Power Consumption, and Execution Time.

DOI: 10.1007/s10009-012-0263-9 Conference: Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security - 30th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2011, Naples, Italy, September 19-22, 2011. Proceedings
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT For autonomous critical real-time embedded (e.g., satellite), guaranteeing a very high level of reliability is as important as keeping the power consumption as low as possible. We propose an off-line scheduling heuristic which, from a given software application graph and a given multiprocessor architecture (homogeneous and fully connected), produces a static multiprocessor schedule that optimizes three criteria: its length (crucial for real-time systems), its reliability (crucial for dependable systems), and its power consumption (crucial for autonomous systems). Our tricriteria scheduling heuristic, called TSH, uses the active replication of the operations and the data-dependencies to increase the reliability and uses dynamic voltage and frequency scaling to lower the power consumption. We demonstrate the soundness of TSH. We also provide extensive simulation results to show how TSH behaves in practice: first, we run TSH on a single instance to provide the whole Pareto front in 3D; second, we compare TSH versus the ECS heuristic (Energy-Conscious Scheduling) from the literature; and third, we compare TSH versus an optimal Mixed Linear Integer Program.

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    ABSTRACT: We consider a task graph mapped on a set of homogeneous processors. We aim at minimizing the energy consumption while enforcing two constraints: a prescribed bound on the execution time (or makespan), and a reliability threshold. Dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) is an approach frequently used to reduce the energy consumption of a schedule, but slowing down the execution of a task to save energy is decreasing the reliability of the execution. In this work, to improve the reliability of a schedule while reducing the energy consumption, we allow for the re-execution of some tasks. We assess the complexity of the tri-criteria scheduling problem (makespan, reliability, energy) of deciding which task to re-execute, and at which speed each execution of a task should be done, with two different speed models: either processors can have arbitrary speeds (continuous model), or a processor can run at a finite number of different speeds and change its speed during a computation (VDD model). We propose several novel tri-criteria scheduling heuristics under the continuous speed model, and we evaluate them through a set of simulations. The two best heuristics turn out to be very efficient and complementary.
    11/2011;

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