A 3.9ns 8.9mW 4×4 silicon photonic switch hybrid integrated with CMOS driver.
ABSTRACT The emerging field of silicon photonics targets monolithic integration of optical components in the CMOS process, potentially enabling high bandwidth, high density interconnects with dramatically reduced cost and power dissipation. A broadband photonic switch is a key component of reconfigurable networks which retain data in the optical domain, thus bypassing the latency, bandwidth and power overheads of opto-electronic conversion. Additionally, with WDM channels, multiple data streams can be routed simultaneously using a single optical device. Although many types of discrete silicon photonic switches have been reported, very few of them have been shown to operate with CMOS drivers. Earlier, we have reported two different 2×2 optical switches wirebond packaged with 90nm CMOS drivers. The 2×2 switch reported in is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), while the one reported in is based on a two-ring resonator.
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Conference Paper: Applications of SOI Technologies to Communication[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents an overview of emerging SOI technologies and their application to communication ICs. The unique properties of Si and SiO<sub>2</sub>, coupled with the broad range of achievable SiO<sub>2</sub> film thicknesses, allow tuning of existing devices and the design of new devices targeting RF, high-speed wire line, and photonic communication applications. By using high-resistivity Si substrates, it becomes possible to realize inductors with Q as high as 50 as well as high-power RF switches. Record SOI NFET f<sub>T</sub> of 485GHz and f<sub>MAX</sub> of 430GHz have been measured, enabling the design of a broad range of high performance circuits, including 100GHz CML dividers, >;100 GHz LC-VCOs, and 16Gb/s 8-port core back-plane transceivers. Finally, due to the large difference in refractive index between Si and SiO<sub>2</sub>, SOI technology allows the efficient design of photonic devices and circuits.Compound Semiconductor Integrated Circuit Symposium (CSICS), 2011 IEEE; 11/2011
Conference Paper: A monolithically-integrated optical receiver in standard 45-nm SOI[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A monolithically-integrated optical receiver for low-energy on-chip and off-chip communication is presented. The monolithic photodiode integration enables the energy-efficient and high-sensitivity sense-amplifier-based receiver design. The receiver is characterized in situ and shown to operate with μA-sensitivity at 3.5 Gb/s with a power consumption of 180 μW (52 fJ/bit) and area of 108 μm<sup>2</sup>. This work demonstrates that photonics and electronics can be jointly integrated in a standard 45-nm SOI process.ESSCIRC (ESSCIRC), 2011 Proceedings of the; 10/2011
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ABSTRACT: Integrated photonic interconnect technology presents a disruptive alternative to electrical I/O for many VLSI applications. Superior bandwidth-density and energy-efficient operation can be realized through dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) and lower transmission losses. There are two main paths towards an integrated platform. Hybrid/heterogeneous designs [1-3] enable each component to be custom-tailored, but suffer from large packaging parasitics, increased manufacturing costs due to requisite process flows, and costly 3D integration or microbump packaging. Monolithic integration mitigates integration overheads, but has not penetrated deeply-scaled technologies due to necessary process customizations . The first monolithic integration of photonic devices and electronic-photonic operation in sub-100 nm (45 nm SOI process with zero foundry changes) is demonstrated in . This paper presents a monolithically integrated optical modulator with a new all-digital driver circuit in a commercial 45nm SOI process. The waveform-conditioning driver circuit enables the carrier-injection modulator to operate at 2.5Gb/s with an energy-cost of 1.23pJ/b, making it ~4× faster and more energy-efficient than the previous monolithically integrated driver/modulator presented in .Solid-State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), 2013 IEEE International; 01/2013