Mixing Heterogeneous Address Spaces in a Single Edge Network.
ABSTRACT The growth of IPv4 Internet has been facing the infamous IP address depletion barrier. In practice, typical IPv4 Internet edge net- works can be expanded by incorporating private addresses and NAT devices. In this paper, major limitations of NAT-expanded private net- works are presented. Furthermore, a solution is proposed to encourage the mixed usage of private and public IP addresses in a single edge network domain. The solution comprises of two key ideas : super-subnet mask and shared NAT. Super-subnet mask removes the routing boundary between private and public hosts. Shared NAT saves public IP address resources by sharing them among several private networks. These ideas not only encourage the coexistence of heterogeneous address classes, but also lead to e-cient sharing of global IP addresses.
- SourceAvailable from: nms.csail.mit.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intermediate network elements, such as network address translators (NATs), firewalls, and transparent caches are now commonplace. The usual reaction in the network architecture community to these so-called middleboxes is a combination of scorn (because they violate important architectural principles) and dismay (because these violations make the Internet less flexible). While we acknowledge these concerns, we also recognize that middleboxes have become an Internet fact of life for important reasons. To retain their functions while eliminating their dangerous side-effects, we propose an extension to the Internet architecture, called the Delegation-Oriented Architecture (DOA), that not only allows, but also facilitates, the deployment of middleboxes. DOA involves two relatively modest changes to the current architecture: (a) a set of references that are carried in packets and serve as persistent host identifiers and (b) a way to resolve these references to delegates chosen by the referenced host.01/2004;
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose a new network layer mobility architecture called Mobile NAT to efficiently support micro and macro-mobility in and across heterogeneous address spaces common in emerging public networks. The key ideas in this architecture are as follows: (1) Use of two IP addresses – an invariant virtual IP address for host identification at the application layer and an actual routable address at the network layer that changes due to mobility. Since physical address has routing significance only within a domain, it can be a private address and therefore, does not deplete the public IP address resource. (2) New DHCP enhancements to distribute the two addresses. (3) A new signaling element called Mobility Manager (MM) that uses Middlebox Communication (MIDCOM) framework to signal the changes in packet processing rules to the Network Address Translators (NATs) in the event of node mobility. Our proposal does not require any modifications to the access networks and can seamlessly co-exist with the existing Mobile IP mechanisms and therefore, can be used to provide seamless mobility across heterogeneous wireline and wireless networks. We report implementation details of a subset of our ideas in a testbed with Windows XP clients and Linux based NATs.MONET. 01/2005; 10:289-302.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We propose 4+4, a simple address extension architecture for Internet that provides an evolutionary approach to extending the existing IPv4 address space in comparison to more complex and disruptive approaches best exemplified by IPv6 deployment. The 4+4 architecture leverages the existence of Network Address Translators (NATs) and private address realms, and importantly, enables the return to end-to-end address transparency as the incremental deployment of 4+4 progresses. During the transition to 4+4, only NATs and end-hosts need to be updated and not the network routers. The 4+4 architecture retains the existing semantics of Internet names and addresses, and only proposes simple changes to the network layer that focus entirely on address extension. Encapsulation is used as the main tool to maintain backward compatibility. We present the design, implementation, and evaluation of the 4+4 architecture and discuss our implementation experiences and results from local and wide-area Internet experimentation. The 4+4 source code is freely available from the Web (comet.columbia.edu/ipv44) for experimentation.Computer Communication Review. 01/2003; 33:43-54.