Conference Proceeding

Effect of time delay on telesurgical performance.

Electr. Eng., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation 01/2009; DOI:10.1109/ROBOT.2009.5152725 In proceeding of: 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2009, Kobe, Japan, May 12-17, 2009
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT In the area of surgical robotics no standard means of performance evaluation has been established. Thousands of surgeons have gone through the SAGES FLS Program, and the psychomotor skill portion of the program is considered the gold standard in laparoscopic skills evaluation. This research describes the use of the FLS block transfer task to evaluate the performance of both surgeons and non-surgeons teleoperating under different time delay conditions on the University of Washington RAVEN Surgical Robot. Time delays of 0 ms, 250 ms, and 500 ms were used and a statistically significant difference in mean block transfer time as well as mean tool tip path length were shown. For this task no significant difference was shown between the surgeon and non-surgeon groups. Clearly surgeon input and feedback is key to surgical robotic system development, but this result implies that non-surgeon subjects can be tested for simple usability evaluations.

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    ABSTRACT: Surgical procedures are traditionally performed by two or more surgeons along with staff nurses. One surgeon serves as the primary surgeon and the other serves as his/her assistant. Surgical robotics have redefined the dynamics in which the two surgeons interact with each other and with the surgical site. Raven IV is a new generation of the surgical robot system having four articulated robotic arms in a spherical configuration, each holding an articulated surgical tool. The system allows two surgeons to teleoperate the Raven IV collaboratively from two remote sites. The current research effort aims to configure the link architecture of each robotic arm, along with the position (port placement) and orientation of the Raven IV with respect to the patient, in order to optimize the common workspace reachable by all four robotic arms. The simulation results indicate that tilting the base of the robotic arms in the range of -20 to 20 deg while moving the ports closer together up to 50 mm apart leads to a preferred circular shape of the common workspace with an isotropy value of 0.5. A carefully configured system with multiple surgical robotic arms will enhance the interactive performance of the two surgeons.
    Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2011 IEEE International Conference on; 06/2011
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    ABSTRACT: This paper derives analytic guidelines to tune the popular Position-Force bilateral controller and improve its performance by incorporating available knowledge on the bounds of the environment impedance. The proposed guidelines can prove especially useful in the domain of telesurgery where a need exists for well-understood bilateral teleoperation controllers, that show good performance and where many tasks can be characterized by restricted and relatively easily definable impedance regions. This paper firstly analyses the two-port passivity and absolute stability properties of two alternatives of the Position-Force controller. The limitations on achievable performance when guaranteeing absolute stability with arbitrary environments are detailed. Next, a novel method, called Bounded Environment Passivity method is introduced. This method enables the design of teleoperation controllers that show passive behaviour for interactions with an environment that varies over a given range of impedances. A set of guidelines that allow a smarter trade-off between performance and stability follows. The theoretical results are verified experimentally on a 1-d.o.f. teleoperation setup.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2009. IROS 2009. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on; 11/2009

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