Conference Paper

Effect of time delay on telesurgical performance

Electr. Eng., Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
DOI: 10.1109/ROBOT.2009.5152725 Conference: 2009 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2009, Kobe, Japan, May 12-17, 2009
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT In the area of surgical robotics no standard means of performance evaluation has been established. Thousands of surgeons have gone through the SAGES FLS Program, and the psychomotor skill portion of the program is considered the gold standard in laparoscopic skills evaluation. This research describes the use of the FLS block transfer task to evaluate the performance of both surgeons and non-surgeons teleoperating under different time delay conditions on the University of Washington RAVEN Surgical Robot. Time delays of 0 ms, 250 ms, and 500 ms were used and a statistically significant difference in mean block transfer time as well as mean tool tip path length were shown. For this task no significant difference was shown between the surgeon and non-surgeon groups. Clearly surgeon input and feedback is key to surgical robotic system development, but this result implies that non-surgeon subjects can be tested for simple usability evaluations.

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Available from: Blake Hannaford, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "It was controlled across the internet, with the final link being a UAV-enabled wireless network. In that experiment, the following network states were recognized as critical for reliable performance [22]: (i) communication latency, (ii) jitters, (iii) packet delays, out-of-order arrivals and losses, and (iv) devices failures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Teleoperated robots are playing an increasingly important role in military actions and medical services. In the future, remotely operated surgical robots will likely be used in more scenarios such as battlefields and emergency response. But rapidly growing applications of teleoperated surgery raise the question; what if the computer systems for these robots are attacked, taken over and even turned into weapons? Our work seeks to answer this question by systematically analyzing possible cyber security attacks against Raven II, an advanced teleoperated robotic surgery system. We identify a slew of possible cyber security threats, and experimentally evaluate their scopes and impacts. We demonstrate the ability to maliciously control a wide range of robots functions, and even to completely ignore or override command inputs from the surgeon. We further find that it is possible to abuse the robot's existing emergency stop (E-stop) mechanism to execute efficient (single packet) attacks. We then consider steps to mitigate these identified attacks, and experimentally evaluate the feasibility of applying the existing security solutions against these threats. The broader goal of our paper, however, is to raise awareness and increase understanding of these emerging threats. We anticipate that the majority of attacks against telerobotic surgery will also be relevant to other teleoperated robotic and co-robotic systems.
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    • "The popularity of the Position-Force controller in telesurgery can be explained by the need for a) well-understood b) bilateral teleoperation controllers, that c) show good performance. Although time delay is often mentioned as an important aspect of telesurgery [22], [23], this work does not deal with time delay. The authors are convinced that even without time delay, the design of performant teleoperation controllers remains a real challenge. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper derives analytic guidelines to tune the popular Position-Force bilateral controller and improve its performance by incorporating available knowledge on the bounds of the environment impedance. The proposed guidelines can prove especially useful in the domain of telesurgery where a need exists for well-understood bilateral teleoperation controllers, that show good performance and where many tasks can be characterized by restricted and relatively easily definable impedance regions. This paper firstly analyses the two-port passivity and absolute stability properties of two alternatives of the Position-Force controller. The limitations on achievable performance when guaranteeing absolute stability with arbitrary environments are detailed. Next, a novel method, called Bounded Environment Passivity method is introduced. This method enables the design of teleoperation controllers that show passive behaviour for interactions with an environment that varies over a given range of impedances. A set of guidelines that allow a smarter trade-off between performance and stability follows. The theoretical results are verified experimentally on a 1-d.o.f. teleoperation setup.
    Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2009. IROS 2009. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on; 11/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical procedures are traditionally performed by two or more surgeons along with staff nurses. One surgeon serves as the primary surgeon and the other serves as his/her assistant. Surgical robotics have redefined the dynamics in which the two surgeons interact with each other and with the surgical site. Raven IV is a new generation of the surgical robot system having four articulated robotic arms in a spherical configuration, each holding an articulated surgical tool. The system allows two surgeons to teleoperate the Raven IV collaboratively from two remote sites. The current research effort aims to configure the link architecture of each robotic arm, along with the position (port placement) and orientation of the Raven IV with respect to the patient, in order to optimize the common workspace reachable by all four robotic arms. The simulation results indicate that tilting the base of the robotic arms in the range of -20 to 20 deg while moving the ports closer together up to 50 mm apart leads to a preferred circular shape of the common workspace with an isotropy value of 0.5. A carefully configured system with multiple surgical robotic arms will enhance the interactive performance of the two surgeons.
    Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2011 IEEE International Conference on; 06/2011
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