The domination of XML in the Internet for data exchange has led to the development of standards with XML Schema syntax for
several application domains. Advanced semantic support, provided by domain ontolo gies and semantic Web tools like logic-based
reasoners, is still very useful for many applications. In order to provide it, interoperability between XML Schema and OWL
is necessary so that XML schemas can be converted to OWL. This way, the semantics of the standards can be enriched with domain
knowledge encoded in OWL domain ontologies and further semantic process ing may take place. In order to achieve interoperability
between XML Schema and OWL, we have developed XS2OWL, a model and a system that are presented in this paper and enable the
automatic transformation of XML Schemas in OWL-DL. XS2OWL also enables the consistent transformation of the derived knowledge
(individuals) from OWL-DL to XML constructs that obey the original XML Schemas.
"Other complete approaches on transforming XML Schema to OWL ontology are    . Their transformations are developed in XSLT by automatically mapping each definition in XML Schema to corresponding OWL domain knowledge. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DTD and its instance have been considered the standard for data representation and information exchange format on the current web. However, when coming to the next generation of web, the Semantic Web, the drawbacks of XML and its schema are appeared. They mainly focus on the structure level and lack support for data representation. Meanwhile, some Semantic Web applications such as intelligent information services and semantic search engines require not only the syntactic format of the data, but also the semantic content. These requirements are supported by the Web Ontology Language (OWL), which is one of the recent W3C recommendation. But nowadays the amount of data presented in OWL is small in compare with XML data. Therefore, finding a way to utilize the available XML documents for the Semantic Web is a current challenge research. In this work we present an effective solution for transforming XML document into OWL domain knowledge. While keeping the original structure, our work also adds more semantics for the XML document. Moreover, whole of the transformation processes are done automatically without any outside intervention. Further, unlike previous approaches which focus on the schema level, we also extend our methodology for the data level by transforming specific XML instances into OWL individuals. The results in existing OWL syntaxes help them to be loaded immediately by the Semantic Web applications.
Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Interaction Sciences: Information Technology, Culture and Human 2009, Seoul, Korea, 24-26 November 2009; 01/2009
"This information is kept in a transformation rule ontology and is utilized during both ontology and metadata transformations. The generalization and the automation of the methodology for ontology-driven interoperability for MPEG-7 described in (Tsinaraki, Polydoros and Christodoulakis 2007) has led to the development of a generic methodology and its software implementation that allow the expression of the XML Schema (Fallside 2001) semantics in OWL-DL, as described in (Tsinaraki and Christodoulakis 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research efforts for interoperability support in the multimedia domain are presented here. Interoperability, both at the syntactic and the semantic level, is necessary in the open multimedia consumption environment formed in the Internet today, so that the multimedia content services offered by different vendors may interoperate. Syntactic interoperability support is achieved in the multimedia domain through the adoption of the dominant MPEG-7 standard for multimedia content and service description. Domain knowledge is then integrated, in the form of domain ontologies, in the MPEG-7 constructs, in order to achieve semantic interoperability. Finally, the utilization of the interoperability support in real world applications is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eXtensible Markup Language (XML) has reached a wide acceptance as the relevant standardization for representing and exchanging data on the Web. Unfortunately, XML covers the syntactic level but lacks semantics, and thus cannot be directly used for the Semantic Web. Currently, finding a way to utilize XML data for the Semantic Web is challenging research. As we have known that ontology can formally represent shared domain knowledge and enable semantics interoperability. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate how to represent and reason about XML with ontologies. Firstly, we give formalized representations of XML data sources, including Document Type Definitions (DTDs), XML Schemas, and XML documents. On this basis, we propose formal approaches for transforming the XML data sources into ontologies, and we also discuss the correctness of the transformations and provide several transformation examples. Furthermore, following the proposed approaches, we implement a prototype tool that can automatically transform XML into ontologies. Finally, we apply the transformed ontologies for reasoning about XML, so that some reasoning problems of XML may be checked by the existing ontology reasoners.
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