Analysis and Classification of Proteomics Data, a Case Study.
ABSTRACT This paper presents a methodology for analyzing and classifying proteins identified in biological samples. In particular, such methodology consists in normalizing and classifying quantity and quality of proteins identified by using tandem mass spectrometry. A case study is considered and a classification experiment for protein discriminant is also reported
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ABSTRACT: Subcellular proteomics, as an important step to functional proteomics, has been a focus in proteomic research. However, the co-purification of "contaminating" proteins has been the major problem in all the subcellular proteomic research including all kinds of mitochondrial proteome research. It is often difficult to conclude whether these "contaminants" represent true endogenous partners or artificial associations induced by cell disruption or incomplete purification. To solve such a problem, we applied a high-throughput comparative proteome experimental strategy, ICAT approach performed with two-dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis, coupled with combinational usage of different bioinformatics tools, to study the proteome of rat liver mitochondria prepared with traditional centrifugation (CM) or further purified with a Nycodenz gradient (PM). A total of 169 proteins were identified and quantified convincingly in the ICAT analysis, in which 90 proteins have an ICAT ratio of PM:CM>1.0, while another 79 proteins have an ICAT ratio of PM:CM<1.0. Almost all the proteins annotated as mitochondrial according to Swiss-Prot annotation, bioinformatics prediction, and literature reports have a ratio of PM:CM>1.0, while proteins annotated as extracellular or secreted, cytoplasmic, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomal, and so on have a ratio of PM:CM<1.0. Catalase and AP endonuclease 1, which have been known as peroxisomal and nuclear, respectively, have shown a ratio of PM:CM>1.0, confirming the reports about their mitochondrial location. Moreover, the 125 proteins with subcellular location annotation have been used as a testing dataset to evaluate the efficiency for ascertaining mitochondrial proteins by ICAT analysis and the bioinformatics tools such as PSORT, TargetP, SubLoc, MitoProt, and Predotar. The results indicated that ICAT analysis coupled with combinational usage of different bioinformatics tools could effectively ascertain mitochondrial proteins and distinguish contaminant proteins and even multilocation proteins. Using such a strategy, many novel proteins, known proteins without subcellular location annotation, and even known proteins that have been annotated as other locations have been strongly indicated for their mitochondrial location.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 02/2005; 4(1):12-34. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Classical proteomics combined two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) for the separation and quantification of proteins in a complex mixture with mass spectrometric identification of selected proteins. More recently, the combination of liquid chromatography (LC), stable isotope tagging, and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has emerged as an alternative quantitative proteomics technology. We have analyzed the proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a major human pathogen comprising about 4,000 genes, by (i) 2-DE and mass spectrometry (MS) and by (ii) the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) reagent method and MS/MS. The data obtained by either technology were compared with respect to their selectivity for certain protein types and classes and with respect to the accuracy of quantification. Initial datasets of 60,000 peptide MS/MS spectra and 1,800 spots for the ICAT-LC/MS and 2-DE/MS methods, respectively, were reduced to 280 and 108 conclusively identified and quantified proteins, respectively. ICAT-LC/MS showed a clear bias for high M(r) proteins and was complemented by the 2-DE/MS method, which showed a preference for low M(r) proteins and also identified cysteine-free proteins that were transparent to the ICAT-LC/MS method. Relative quantification between two strains of the M. tuberculosis complex also revealed that the two technologies provide complementary quantitative information; whereas the ICAT-LC/MS method quantifies the sum of the protein species of one gene product, the 2-DE/MS method quantifies at the level of resolved protein species, including post-translationally modified and processed polypeptides. Our data indicate that different proteomic technologies applied to the same sample provide complementary types of information that contribute to a more complete understanding of the biological system studied.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 02/2004; 3(1):24-42. · 7.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Androgens are involved in the pathogenesis of diseases including adenocarcinoma of the prostate. These hormones are important for growth, maintenance, and integrity of structure and function of the prostate. Androgen-deprivation is currently the only effective systemic therapy for prostate cancer but the effects of androgens on the proteome are still poorly described. Here we quantitatively profile changes in the proteome of LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in response to androgen using the newly developed isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) labeling and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (2-D LC-MS/MS). ICAT enables the concurrent identification and comparative quantitative analysis of proteins present in various biological samples including human cell and tissue extracts. Quantification and identification of 139 proteins in complex protein mixtures obtained from androgen-stimulated and unstimulated LNCaP cells were achieved. Changes in levels of 77 proteins in response to androgens were detected. Some of these proteins have been previously reported to be regulated by androgens and include spermine synthase, fatty acid synthase and calreticulin precursor. A large number of proteins that have not been previously reported to be expressed in prostate cells were also quantitatively identified. Examples of these include members of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily, "similar" to hypothetical protein DKFZp434B0328.1, "similar" to 14-3-3 protein zeta and "similar" to hypothetical protein 458, components of the actin cytoskeleton and a range of unknown/uncharacterized proteins. This catalogue of proteins provides an overview of the proteome of prostate cancer cells and the global changes that occur in response to androgens.PROTEOMICS 05/2004; 4(4):1116-34. · 4.13 Impact Factor