"Conversely, disadvantages of CLR sensors include hysteresis, creep, and instability. CLR has been used in a variety of force and pressure transducers for tactile applications, for contact detection, and for grasp control in both robotic and prosthetic hands    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In stark contrast to the inspiring functionality of the natural hand, limitations of current upper limb prostheses stemming from marginal feedback control, challenges of mechanical design, and lack of sensory capacity, are well-established. This paper provides a critical review of current sensory systems and the potential of a selection of electroactive polymers for sensory applications in hand prostheses. Candidate electroactive polymers are reviewed in terms of their relevant advantages and disadvantages, together with their current implementation in related applications. Empirical analysis of one of the most novel electroactive polymers, ionic polymer metal composites (IPMC), was conducted to demonstrate its potential for prosthetic applications. With linear responses within the operating range typical of hand prostheses, bending angles, and bending rates were accurately measured with 4.4+/-2.5 and 4.8+/-3.5% error, respectively, using the IPMC sensors. With these comparable error rates to traditional resistive bend sensors and a wide range of sensitivities and responses, electroactive polymers offer a promising alternative to more traditional sensory approaches. Their potential role in prosthetics is further heightened by their flexible and formable structure, and their ability to act as both sensors and actuators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditionally, in robotics, artificial intelligence, and neuroscience, there has been a focus on the study of the control or the neural system itself. Recently there has been an increasing interest into the notion of embodiment in all disciplines dealing with intelligent behavior, including psychology, philosophy, and linguistics. In this paper, we explore the far-reaching and often surprising implications of this concept. While embodiment has often been used in its trivial meaning, i.e. "intelligence requires a body", there are deeper and more important consequences, concerned with connecting brain, body, and environment, or more generally with the relation between physical and information (neural, control) processes. It turns out that, for example, robots designed by exploiting embodiment are frequently simpler, more robust and adaptive than those based on the classical control paradigm. Often, morphology and materials can take over some of the functions normally attributed to control, a phenomenon called "morphological computation". It can be shown that through the embodied interaction with the environment, in particular through sensory-motor coordination, information structure is induced in the sensory data, thus facilitating perception and learning. A number of case studies are presented to illustrate the concept of embodiment. We conclude with some speculations about potential lessons for robotics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper we present our ongoing work on the control of a tendon driven robotic hand by an adaptive learning mechanism evolved using a simulator developed over the last years. We present the "ligand-receptor" concept that can be easily used by artificial evolution to explore (a) the growing of a neural network, (b) value systems and (c) learning mechanisms systematically for a given task (i.e., grasping). The proposed neural network allows the robotic hand to explore its own movement capabilities to interact with objects of different shape, size and material and learn how to grasp them. As the evolved neural controller is highly adaptive, it will allow us in the future to systematically investigate the interplay between morphology and behavior using the same, but adaptive neural controller.
Intelligent Autonomous Systems 9 - IAS-9, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, March 7-9, 2006; 01/2006
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