Translating MathML into Nemeth Braille Code.
ABSTRACT An assistive software application has been created that translates math statements encoded as MathML into Nemeth Braille Code
(NBC). This translation is conducted in two phases, the translation of the MathML elements into NBC, then the implementation
of rules specific to Nemeth Braille that are irrelevant to MathML. All MathML elements holding semantically relevant information
are translated by this program, including the nesting of elements to any level. Some of the syntactical rules inherent to
NBC such as the use of the numeric indicator; additional space characters; and some contractions have also been implemented;
other rules remain to be incorporated. The NBC can be exported in three ways (1) directly to a refreshable Braille device
via a serial connection in real time; (2) saved as a text file then downloaded into a Braille device; and (3) save as a text
file then embossed by a third party application. This application allows a person with no Braille experience to enter a math
equation into any equation editor that can save that statement in the MathML format, and then convert that statement into
Nemeth Braille Code for perusal by the visually impaired.
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ABSTRACT: Visually impaired people are an integral part of the society. However, their disabilities have made them to have less access to computers, the Internet, and high quality educational software than the people with clear vision. Consequently, they have not been able to improve on their own knowledge, and have significant influence and impact on the economic, commercial, and educational ventures in the society. One way to narrow this widening gap and see a reversal of this trend is to develop a system, within their economic reach, and which will empower them to communicate freely and widely using the Internet or any other information infrastructure. Over time, the Braille system has been used by the visually impaired for communication and contact with the outside world. Translation between one language and another, using the Braille coding system, has been limited, problematic, and in many cases, one-directional.This paper describes an Arabic Braille bi-directional and bi-lingual translation/editor system that does not need expensive equipments. With appropriate rule file for any other languages, this system can be generalized to facilitate communication among literate people regardless of their disabilities (visually impaired or sighted), income, languages, and geographical locations.Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences. 20:13–29.
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ABSTRACT: This paper shows an original research on the teaching of geometry for visually impaired peo-ple. Geometrix, a new dynamic environment specially designed and implemented for this purpose, is detailed as well as a field research conducted with a control group of sighted people and an experimental group of visually impaired people. The results of this research established the hypothesis that the use of dynamic computing environments in the education of visually impaired people can help the development, retention and application of abstract concepts. The commitment to develop an pragmatic and adequate environment in regard to the sui generis characteristics of its users supported the foremost purposes of providing peremptory and auton-omous learning of geometric concepts, as well as providing adequate applications of these con-cepts in teaching and learning processes. The results also showed that Geometrix can help visually impaired people to improve their spatial positions. Comparative analyses on time of acquisition of geometric concepts by visually impaired people have concluded that the environ-ment has a better performance than the traditional teaching in classrooms.
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ABSTRACT: Mathematics accessibility for the blind attracts more and more attention in recent years. It aims to make mathematical documents and information accessible to the blind via computer and Internet. Several projects have made considerable progress in meeting the challenges in mathematics accessibility. One of the remaining challenges is the translation between mathematical formats used by sighted individuals and mathematical Braille codes used by blind individuals. We concentrate on the automatic translation of Chinese mathematical Braille code and develop an automatic translation middleware to implement the inter-translation between Chinese mathematical Braille code and any format of MathML, LaTex and OpenMath using XSLT stylesheets. The automatic translation middleware has higher flexibility, scalability and portability, easy to transplant, modify and upgrade.01/2010;