Translating MathML into Nemeth Braille Code.
ABSTRACT An assistive software application has been created that translates math statements encoded as MathML into Nemeth Braille Code
(NBC). This translation is conducted in two phases, the translation of the MathML elements into NBC, then the implementation
of rules specific to Nemeth Braille that are irrelevant to MathML. All MathML elements holding semantically relevant information
are translated by this program, including the nesting of elements to any level. Some of the syntactical rules inherent to
NBC such as the use of the numeric indicator; additional space characters; and some contractions have also been implemented;
other rules remain to be incorporated. The NBC can be exported in three ways (1) directly to a refreshable Braille device
via a serial connection in real time; (2) saved as a text file then downloaded into a Braille device; and (3) save as a text
file then embossed by a third party application. This application allows a person with no Braille experience to enter a math
equation into any equation editor that can save that statement in the MathML format, and then convert that statement into
Nemeth Braille Code for perusal by the visually impaired.
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ABSTRACT: Mathematics accessibility is an important topic for inclusive education. In this paper, we make Wikipedia's repository of mathematical formulas accessible by providing a natural language description of its more than 420,000 formulas using a well-researched sub-language. We also contribute by targeting Spanish speakers, for whom assistive technologies, particularly domain-specific technologies like the one described here, are scarce. Our focus on the semantics of formulas (rather than their visual appearance) allowed us to generate verbalizations with a precision of approximately 80% of understandable descriptions, as shown in an evaluation with sighted users.Proceedings of the International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility, W4A 2011, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India, March 28-29, 2011; 01/2011
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ABSTRACT: The ability to understand, apply, and manipulate mathematical concepts is a cornerstone of any scientific discipline; as such it is an irreplaceable component of the training and education of any students. While the advent of online and e-learning technologies has enabled the breaking of several barriers and promoted wider access to educational opportunities, it has also furthered the disenfranchisement of visually impaired students. Despite the several efforts in the field of enhancing accessibility for those with visual impairments especially in the educational discipline, it is obvious that there is still a lack of contributions in making mathematics manipulation processes accessible. This paper presents a framework that facilitates doing and manipulating mathematical algebraic content in a way that is convenient, accessible, and usable as well for students with visual impairments.Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Applications and Services - 6th International Conference, UAHCI 2011, Held as Part of HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings, Part IV; 01/2011
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ABSTRACT: This paper shows an original research on the teaching of geometry for visually impaired peo-ple. Geometrix, a new dynamic environment specially designed and implemented for this purpose, is detailed as well as a field research conducted with a control group of sighted people and an experimental group of visually impaired people. The results of this research established the hypothesis that the use of dynamic computing environments in the education of visually impaired people can help the development, retention and application of abstract concepts. The commitment to develop an pragmatic and adequate environment in regard to the sui generis characteristics of its users supported the foremost purposes of providing peremptory and auton-omous learning of geometric concepts, as well as providing adequate applications of these con-cepts in teaching and learning processes. The results also showed that Geometrix can help visually impaired people to improve their spatial positions. Comparative analyses on time of acquisition of geometric concepts by visually impaired people have concluded that the environ-ment has a better performance than the traditional teaching in classrooms.