Conference Paper

Translating MathML into Nemeth Braille Code

DOI: 10.1007/11788713_170 Conference: Computers Helping People with Special Needs, 10th International Conference, ICCHP 2006, Linz, Austria, July 11-13, 2006, Proceedings
Source: DBLP


An assistive software application has been created that translates math statements encoded as MathML into Nemeth Braille Code
(NBC). This translation is conducted in two phases, the translation of the MathML elements into NBC, then the implementation
of rules specific to Nemeth Braille that are irrelevant to MathML. All MathML elements holding semantically relevant information
are translated by this program, including the nesting of elements to any level. Some of the syntactical rules inherent to
NBC such as the use of the numeric indicator; additional space characters; and some contractions have also been implemented;
other rules remain to be incorporated. The NBC can be exported in three ways (1) directly to a refreshable Braille device
via a serial connection in real time; (2) saved as a text file then downloaded into a Braille device; and (3) save as a text
file then embossed by a third party application. This application allows a person with no Braille experience to enter a math
equation into any equation editor that can save that statement in the MathML format, and then convert that statement into
Nemeth Braille Code for perusal by the visually impaired.

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    • "Os trabalhos desenvolvidos no contexto de ensino e aprendizagem de DV adotam frequentemente duas metodologias: a estática, que usa essencialmente o código Braille para tentar traduzir conceitos através de codificações (por vezes estendidas), e a dinâmica na qual o áudio é considerado fundamental para a tradução desses conceitos . [27] e [28] ilustram o uso da metodologia estática enquanto [29] e [30] o da metodologia dinâmica. Diferentemente dessas pesquisas, a proposta aqui apresentada não está fundamentada em prover aos DV os resultados de suas interações com softwares dispendiosos, mas sim em permitir aos DV entenderem e manipularem corretamente conceitos geométricos. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper shows an original research on the teaching of geometry for visually impaired peo-ple. Geometrix, a new dynamic environment specially designed and implemented for this purpose, is detailed as well as a field research conducted with a control group of sighted people and an experimental group of visually impaired people. The results of this research established the hypothesis that the use of dynamic computing environments in the education of visually impaired people can help the development, retention and application of abstract concepts. The commitment to develop an pragmatic and adequate environment in regard to the sui generis characteristics of its users supported the foremost purposes of providing peremptory and auton-omous learning of geometric concepts, as well as providing adequate applications of these con-cepts in teaching and learning processes. The results also showed that Geometrix can help visually impaired people to improve their spatial positions. Comparative analyses on time of acquisition of geometric concepts by visually impaired people have concluded that the environ-ment has a better performance than the traditional teaching in classrooms.
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    • "For example , to indicate a superindex, the pitch will be higher, while for a subindex, the pitch will be lower. AsTeR also allows navigation of the formulas, exploring the expression as a tree-based structure (ancestors, siblings) and tagging certain nodes to easily come back to them later, etc. Stanley and Karshmer introduce MathGenie [15], a system that reads out mathematical formulas, together with their Nemeth code [9]. MathGenie was specially designed for students in the sciences who had some visual impairment. "
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    • "MathPlayer [5], MathTalk [6] and AudioMath[7]) that feeds common Text-to-Speech systems [8] [9], interpretation into any Mathematical Braille code (e.g. Nemeth [10]), print on a Braille embosser, display on a refreshable Braille display and navigation functionality in a mathematical expression. Today, MathML is an accepted standard in math applications, for example Maple and Mathematica. "
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