A General Classifier of Whisker Data Using Stationary Naive Bayes: Application to BIOTACT Robots.
ABSTRACT A general problem in robotics is how to best utilize sensors to classify the robot’s environment. The BIOTACT project (BIOmimetic
Technology for vibrissal Active Touch) is a collaboration between biologists and engineers that has led to many distinctive
robots with artificial whisker sensing capabilities. One problem is to construct classifiers that can recognize a wide range
of whisker sensations rather than constructing different classifiers for specific features. In this article, we demonstrate
that a stationary naive Bayes classifier can perform such a general classification by applying it to various robot experiments.
This classifier could be a key component of a robot able to learn autonomously about novel environments, where classifier
properties are not known in advance.
- SourceAvailable from: Nathan Lepora
Conference Paper: Brain-inspired Bayesian perception for biomimetic robot touch[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Studies of decision making in animals suggest a neural mechanism of evidence accumulation for competing percepts according to Bayesian sequential analysis. This model of perception is embodied here in a biomimetic tactile sensing robot based on the rodent whisker system. We implement simultaneous perception of object shape and location using two psychological test paradigms: first, a free-response paradigm in which the agent decides when to respond, implemented with Bayesian sequential analysis; and second an interrogative paradigm in which the agent responds after a fixed interval, implemented with maximum likelihood estimation. A benefit of free-response Bayesian perception is that it allows tuning of reaction speed against accuracy. In addition, we find that large gains in decision performance are achieved with unforced re-sponses that allow null decisions on ambiguous data. Therefore free-response Bayesian perception offers benefits for artificial systems that make them more animal-like in behavior.Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on; 05/2012
A General Classifier of Whisker Data using
Stationary Naive Bayes:
Application to BIOTACT Robots
Nathan F. Lepora1,Charles Fox1,Mat Evans1,Ben Mitchinson1,Asma Motiwala1,
J. Charlie Sullivan2, Martin J. Pearson2, Jason Welsby2, Tony Pipe2,
Kevin Gurney1, and Tony J. Prescott1
1Adaptive Behaviour Research Group, Department of Psychology,
University of Sheffield, UK.
2Bristol Robotics Laboratory, Bristol Business Park, Bristol, UK.
Abstract. A general problem in robotics is how to best utilize sensors
to classify the robot’s environment. The BIOTACT project (BIOmimetic
Technology for vibrissal Active Touch) is a collaboration between biolo-
gists and engineers that has led to many distinctive robots with artificial
whisker sensing capabilities. One problem is to construct classifiers that
can recognize a wide range of whisker sensations rather than constructing
different classifiers for specific features. In this article, we demonstrate
that a stationary naive Bayes classifier can perform such a general classi-
fication by applying it to various robot experiments. This classifier could
be a key component of a robot able to learn autonomously about novel
environments, where classifier properties are not known in advance.
Keywords: BIOTACT, Active touch, Whiskers, Bayes’ rule, Classifier
Robotics has much to learn from the ways that animals are constructed, control
their bodies and utilize their sensory capabilities . All of the robots described in
this article result from a long-term collaboration between biologists and engineers
that aims to further understanding of biological vibrissal (whisker) systems and
determine the potential applications to engineered systems such as autonomous
robots . Research into these systems was undertaken as part of a European
Framework 7 project termed BIOTACT (BIOmimetic Technology for vibrissal
Active Touch) . The vibrissal sensing technology used in these robots was
inspired by many aspects of biological whiskers , including their morphology,
control and sensory information processing.
This article focuses on how to process the sensory information from artificial
vibrissal sensors to categorize and recognize the robot’s nearby environment.
2N. Lepora, et al.
This classification problem relies on characterizing stimuli from the environ-
ment that are similar every time they are encountered, for example the speed
of a contacting object is typified by the peak whisker deflection it produces .
Classifiers of sensory data from artificial vibrissae have generally focussed on
distinctive features of the whisker signal produced by the stimulus. Examples
include peak deflection amplitude and duration for contact speed and radial dis-
tance , the profile of the whisker deflection power spectrum for texture [6–8],
and the change in peak deflection across many whiskers for surface shape .
These classifiers perform well in the situations they are designed for, but are
not accurate outside their operating range. For example, peak whisker deflection
may not accurately characterize texture.
While it is possible to choose specific classifiers for robots sensing artificial
environments, in more natural environments it would be useful to employ generic
classifiers that apply across a broad range of stimuli. Traditionally this goal
has not been a focus of classifier design for whiskered robots, because the first
priority was to find a set of classifiers that allows the robot to interact with test
environments. However, now that a fairly comprehensive library of classifiers
is becoming available [5–14], such questions about the choice and flexibility of
classifiers are becoming relevant.
In recent work, we found that a classifier based on generic probabilistic meth-
ods could recognize surface texture accurately by utilizing the probability dis-
tribution (histogram) of whisker deflections over a time window of data .
In principle, such a method could also characterize other stimuli by utilizing
the overall statistical properties of whisker deflections to determine the salient
aspects of each stimulus. To explore the hypothesis that a probabilistic classi-
fier could apply across general types of stimuli, we demonstrate here that one
method, stationary naive Bayes, applies well across a broad range of stimuli
encountered by several robot platforms constructed for the BIOTACT project.
2 Classification with stationary naive Bayes
The probabilistic classifier used here is based on Bayes’ rule, but makes two as-
sumptions for simple application to time series of whisker data. First, the sensor
measurements are assumed independent, or naive, and second the measurement
distributions are assumed stationary in time. Naive Bayes is usually considered
across different data dimensions rather than over time series with the stationary
assumption, and so we refer to the present method as stationary naive Bayes.
This method relies on calculating the probability distributions of measured
time series from the empirical frequencies with which values occur in classes of
training data. The probability of a single measurement x being from a class is
where nx(Cl) is the total number of times that the value x occurs in the time
series for class Cl. The conditional probability P(x|Cl) is commonly referred to
as a likelihood of the sensor measurement x occurring.
A general classifier of whisker data 3
Given a new set of test data, Bayes’ rule states that the (posterior) probabil-
ity P(Cl|x1,··· ,xn) for a time-series of measurements x1,··· ,xnbeing drawn
from the training data for class Cl is proportional to the likelihood of those
measurements P(x1,··· ,xn|Cl) estimated from that training data
P(Cl|x1,··· ,xn) =P(x1,··· ,xn|Cl)P(Cl)
where P(Cl) is the (prior) probability of the data being from class Cl and
P(x1,··· ,xn) is the (marginal) probability of measuring x1,··· ,xn given no
other information. A Bayesian classifier finds which class C has maximum a
posteriori probability given the measurement time series
C = argmax
P(Cl|x1,··· ,xn) = argmax
where argmax refers to the argument (the class) that maximizes the posterior.
The following formalism uses that the marginals P(x) are independent of the
classes and can be ignored in the argmax operation. It will also be convenient to
use the logarithm of the posterior probability to turn products of probabilities
into sums. Then the classification in Eq. 3 is equivalent to finding
C = argmax
logP(x1,··· ,xn|Cl) + logP(Cl), (4)
which is just the maximum over the log-likelihoods plus log priors of a series of
measurements x1,··· ,xnbeing from each class of training data.
An important simplification occurs if the measurements are assumed statisti-
cally independent at each time across the data and the probability distributions
from which these measurements are drawn are assumed stationary in time. Then
the overall conditional probability of a series of measurements factorizes into a
product of conditional probabilities for each individual measurement. Conse-
quently, the classification can be rewritten as
C = argmax
logP(xi|Cl) + logP(Cl),(5)
Thus the most probable class is found from the maximum over the summed log-
likelihoods for the time window, shifted by its log-prior. This equation defines
the stationary naive Bayes classifier used in this paper, with ‘naive’ denoting the
assumption of statistical independence over time and stationary denoting that
the same likelihood distribution applies for all times.
The following examples are based around robot experiments in which similar
amounts of data are collected for all classes. There is then no biasing towards
any class from prior knowledge of its occurrence frequency. Therefore, we assume
that the priors are equal and ignore them in the classification (Eq. 5). Although
the classification is then equivalent to maximum likelihood, we retain the priors
in the formalism to emphasize the Bayesian nature of the method in that in
principle it applies also to situations with a priori class knowledge.
4 N. Lepora, et al.
3Experiment 1: Surface texture classification
Fig.1. Surface texture classification with the iRobot Roomba.
The Y -deflection validation data is shown for each of the four textures. On each trace,
the first four half-trials of 8 seconds are for anticlockwise motion and the latter four
half-trials are for clockwise motion. Hits are shown in color and misses shaded in black.
Methods: Surface texture data was collected from whisker attached to an
iRobot Roomba mobile robotic platform .
The whisker was mounted on the robot at a 45 degree angle to the direction
of forwards motion with a downwards elevation sufficient to contact the floor
(Fig. 1). The whisker sensor consisted of a flexible plastic whisker shaft mounted
into a short, polyurethane rubber filled tube called a follicle case. Overall dimen-
sions were approximately five-times a rat whisker (200mm long, 2mm diameter),
with material properties matched to scaled-up biological whiskers .
Four surfaces were chosen for classification: two carpets of different rough-
nesses, a tarmac surface and a vinyl surface. Deflections of the whisker shaft were
measured as 2-dimensional (X,Y ) displacements at the base using a Hall effect
sensor sampled at 2KHz. In these experiments, the robot moved in a stereotyped
rotating manner, spinning either anticlockwise or clockwise (4 trials each of 16
seconds). Here the classification applies over both types of motion.
Results: The data resemble noisy time series interspersed with dead zones,
jumps and systematic changes in the mean or variance (Figs 1A-D). The initial
8 seconds of each trial was used for training data, leaving the final 8 seconds for
A general classifier of whisker data5
validation testing. The texture likelihoods were then found from the histograms
of the empirical frequencies for measurement values of the four textures (Eq. 1).
In previous work, we used likelihood distributions that assumed statistical inde-
pendence between horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) deflections of the whisker .
Here, we build on that study by utilizing a two-dimensional joint-likelihood for
classification. This study also aims to present texture classification in the wider
context of identifying other aspects of the environment, such as contact speed
and distance or shape classification, as discussed later.
For validation, the data was separated into discrete segments of fixed tem-
poral window size 500ms over which the texture is determined. The stationary
naive Bayes classifier then considers the log-likelihood values for the four candi-
date textures from the conditional probability distributions at the same measure-
ment value in the training data. As discussed above, two-dimensional likelihoods
over pairs of X and Y deflection values were considered, binning measurements
over a grid of resolution 10mV by 10mV. The log-likelihood values over the seg-
ments of validation data were then summed for each of the four textures (Eq. 5),
with the maximal value giving the classified texture.
The correct classifications, or hits, for each of the four textures is shown on
Figs 1A-D by the colored segments of data and the misses by black segments. The
classification for all four textures was highly accurate (mean hit rates 89%, 88%,
91% and 99%). These results are apparently little different from those assuming
independence between the X and Y directions (c.f. ). Thus in this situation,
a saving in computational complexity can be made by moving to a classifier that
naively treats the X and Y values as independent; however, we expect that in
general the dependence between separate streams of information is important,
and the determination of when it is remains an open research question.
In general, the stationary naive Bayes classifier was robust to changes in robot
motion, since an identical classifier was used for both clockwise and anticlockwise
rotations. This is perhaps surprising considering that such changes cause large
systematic effects in the whisker deflection data (Fig. 1 at 32 seconds). It is also
curious that the misses occurred mainly near jumps in the whisker deflection,
corresponding to the whisker spuriously catching the floor surface, rather than
directly confusing textures on normal data. Thus the accuracy on data without
such artifacts would improve upon the 92% mean hit rate found here.
4Experiment 2: Speed and radial distance classification
Methods: An XY positioning robot moved a vertical bar onto a fixed, horizontal
whisker to probe the whisker deflection dependency on contact speed and radial
distance . The data set consisted of four repeats of 2626 distinct contact speeds
and distances along the whisker shaft.
The whisker sensor was similar to that in the preceding texture study, with
slightly different dimensions (whisker length 185mm, tapering from 3mm to
0.5mm) and material properties again scaled up from biological rat whiskers .
Objects were moved onto the whisker and when contact was detected the robot
6 N. Lepora, et al.
Fig.2. Speed and radial distance classification with the XY table.
Panels A and B show the contact speed errors and radial distance errors between the
target value for the validation trial and the classified value from the stationary naive
Bayes classifier. Panel C shows a scatter plot of these errors.
retracted the bar at its maximum speed after a short 300ms delay. Thus the
contacts were actively feedback-controlled, as are whisker contacts observed in
animal behaviour studies. Radial contact distance along the whisker shaft away
from the base was sampled in 1mm steps from 80mm to 180mm and contact
speed in 7.2mm/sec steps from 36mm/sec to 216mm/sec, giving 101×26 = 2626
distinct contacts. For more details we refer to .
Results: Whisker signals had a characteristic profile in which their X-deflection
increased smoothly from rest until reaching their peak after a few hundred mil-
liseconds, and then quickly returned towards baseline followed by damped oscil-
latory ringing of period ∼50ms [5, Fig. 3]. As observed in the original analysis,
deflections of a similar peak amplitude can be produced for many contact speed
and distance combinations (by compensating the increase in speed with a de-
crease in radial distance).
Traces from 100ms before the initial deflection to 650ms after were used for
analysis. Empirically, it was found that whisker velocity traces gave a better
localization of contact speed and distance than whisker deflection traces. Thus,
the positional deflections were converted to velocities for the analysis (by taking
their numerical derivative and Gaussian smoothing to reduce noise). For each
contact combination, three trials were used for training and the remaining trial
saved for validation. These three trials were concatenated and the likelihoods
A general classifier of whisker data7
Fig.3. Speed and radial distance classification with the XY table.
The brightness of each pixel represents the magnitude of the log-posterior for each
combination of speed and distance marked on the axes. The green cross represents
the target speed and distance of the test data and the blue circle the classified values
according to the maximal log-posterior (at the brightest pixel).
found from the histograms of the empirical frequencies for the time series values
binned into 10mV/sec intervals (Eq. 1). This procedure resulted in 2626 distinct
likelihood distributions, one for each speed-distance combination.
For validation, each likelihood distribution was used to construct a log-
posterior from the test trial data (Eq. 5). Generally, the distribution of log-
posteriors for each trial had an extended curving segment of high values close
to the target speed and distance of the test trial, surrounded by a drop-off of
values further away from these targets (example shown in Fig. 3). The maximum
log-posterior gave the classified speed and radial distance for that test trial.
Histograms of the errors between the classified and target speeds and dis-
tances were approximately Gaussian with little systematic bias of their centers
from zero error (Figs 2A,B). A two-dimensional scatter-plot of these errors was
consistent with these observations, and also revealed correlations between the
speed and distance errors (Fig. 2C) consistent with the prevailing direction of
the high value region in the log-posterior distribution (c.f. Fig. 3, bright region).
This direction in contact speed and radial distance coincided with the region of
constant peak amplitude examined in the original study of feature-based classi-
fiers . Hence, the stationary naive Bayes classifier appears highly dependent
on peak deflection amplitude, but must also use other aspects of the whisker sig-
nal to localize the contact speed and distance close to the target values. Overall,
the spread of distance errors was around 5mm compared with an overall range
of 100mm, and the spread of speed errors was around 12mm/sec compared with
an overall range of 180mm/sec. Thus the overall accuracy was around 93-95%.
8 N. Lepora, et al.
5Experiment 3: Shape and position classification
Fig.4. Shape and position classification with the BIOTACT sensor.
The x-axis represents the cylinder configuration that is being tested for (5 positions and
3 curvatures). The y-axis denotes the test whisk, which were taken in 30 whisks trials
in order of the configurations shown on the x-axis. Green crosses represent test trials
that were correctly classified and red crosses represent incorrect classifications. The
shade of pixels represents the value of the log-posterior according to the test cylinder
configurations, such that brighter pixels denote larger log-posteriors (with the classified
configuration being the brightest for each test trial).
Methods: The BIOTACT sensor (Fig. 4) was used to sense cylinders of var-
ious diameters placed horizontally at different positions along a platform and
approached from a vertical direction.
The G1 (Generation 1) BIOTACT sensor consists of a truncated conical head
that holds up to 24 whisker modules. The whisker modules are arranged in 6
radially symmetric rows of 4, oriented normally to the cone surface . The
head is mounted as the end-effector of a 7-degree-of-freedom robot arm (Fig. 4).
For the present experiments, the head was fitted with a total of 4 whiskers in one
row appropriate for sensing axially symmetric shapes such as cylinders aligned
perpendicular to the whisker row. These whiskers were moved back-and-forth
to repeatedly contact surfaces of interest akin to animal whisking behaviour ,
with individual whisker modules feedback modulated to make light, minimal
impingement contacts on the surface . Whiskers towards the front of the
A general classifier of whisker data9
head were shorter than at the back (lengths 50mm, 80mm, 115mm and 160mm),
and were designed with a taper from a 1.5mm base to a 0.25mm tip.
Three rigid plastic hemi-cylinders with radii of curvature 35mm, 25mm and
15mm were used as test objects. They were mounted with their curved surfaces
lying upwards on bases of height 15mm, 25mm and 35mm to ensure their vertical
dimensions were equal. Five different positions for each cylinder were used, with
central axes offset 100mm, 120mm, 140mm, 160mm and 180mm from the central
axis of the head cone of the BIOTACT sensor. The orientation of the BIOTACT
head was such that the four whiskers contacted the cylinders along the horizontal
and perpendicular to the cylinder axis (i.e. across the cylinder). When contacting
a horizontal surface, the whisker tips are approximately 30mm apart, spanning
a distance from 100mm to 190mm perpendicular to the head axis. The depth
of the contacts was arranged to be equal for all trials and only contacting the
curved sections of the test objects. Each of the 15 distinct trials was repeated
twice with 30 whisks at 1Hz to give training and validation data sets.
Results: The four whisker contacts across the cylinder surfaces had a distinctive
pattern depending upon the curvature and position of the cylinder. For the
largest cylinder in a central position, four whiskers could contact simultaneously,
while for the smallest cylinder only one or two whiskers could make contact.
Single whisk traces from all 4 whiskers were used for analysis, with each trace
starting and finishing when the whisker was maximally retracted from the object.
The 30 whisks from each training trial were concatenated and the likelihoods
found from the histograms of the empirical frequencies for the time series values
binned into 10mV/sec intervals (Eq. 1). This procedure resulted in 15 likelihood
distributions, one for each of the 3 cylinder curvatures and 5 positions.
For validation, the classification accuracy over single test whisks were con-
sidered. Over the 15 test trials, this gave a total of 450 distinct test whisks.
The stationary naive Bayes classifier considered the log-posterior values for the
15 candidate configurations of 3 curvatures and 5 positions, calculated by sum-
ming the associated log-likelihood values for the whisker deflections over each
single test whisk (Eq. 5). Correct classifications, or hits, correspond to when the
maximum log-posterior coincides with the test cylinder configuration.
Overall, the hit rate for this experiment was above 98% using single test
whisks contacting a surface (Fig. 4; hits shown in green and misses in red). The
most common mistake was confusing the largest and medium cylinders at their
most distant position from the robot head, where only one or two whiskers could
contact the object; even then, though, there were just 6 mistakes over 60 test
whisks. Therefore, using four whiskers dabbing onto a surface, the BIOTACT
sensor could reliably determine both the curvature and horizontal positioning of
test cylinders. This was achievable with single whisks lasting less than a second.
If instead the full trial of 30 whisks were considered, then all test configurations
could be determined with a perfect classification rate of 100%.
10N. Lepora, et al.
The main point of this article is that a classifier based on probabilistic methods
can be a general classifier for artificial whisker sensors because it determines
the salient aspects of the data on which to base the discrimination. Such a
classifier contrasts with the more traditionally considered specific classifiers that
are based on pre-chosen features of the signals, such as peak deflection or profile
of the power spectrum. We see these two types of classifiers as complementary
in their applications and use. Specific classifiers are appropriate for controlled
environments in which many details are known in advance, whereas general
classifiers should just ‘work out of the box’ and apply across a range of situations.
For this initial study, we used the simplest Bayesian classifier available for
time series analysis, by assuming stationarity and naive independence over sensor
measurements. Further work could investigate how relaxing these assumptions
affects classification accuracy. That being said, all applications of stationary
naive Bayes considered in this article gave highly accurate hit rates of 90% or
greater over diverse stimuli and robots. Furthermore, the efficiency savings from
computationally simple classifiers, compared with more sophisticated methods
for Bayesian inference, are important for sensing in autonomous robots. Hence
we expect that the classifier used here will be appropriate for many situations of
practical interest for whiskered robots. That being said, future study should clar-
ify when the classification is limited by the simplifying assumptions, for example
when correlations in the time series degrade the performance.
One problem requiring classifiers with the general performance found here
is to autonomously explore and learn about novel environments. Because novel
stimuli are not known in advance, only general classifiers would be sufficiently
versatile for each new situation that arises. Fortunately, the probabilistic classi-
fier in this article, stationary naive Bayes, can also detect novelty . In another
study with a BIOTACT robot, SCRATCHbot, novelty detection was examined
by training the classifier to recognize the whisker signals from a blank floor and
then examining the classifier output when it passed a novel texture. The clas-
sifier output, corresponding to the log-probability of the data being from the
floor, displayed an anomalous change that can be used to identify novel events.
One future project would be to combine the novelty detecting properties of the
stationary naive Bayes classifier with its classification abilities to investigate the
autonomous learning of stimuli in unfamiliar environments.
A related question for future study is how to extend the standard train-
ing/testing protocol of presenting many stereotyped examples of a contact onto
a stimulus and then testing with the same examples. In natural environments,
the robot might be expected to be more varied in its movements while con-
tacting an object. Or perhaps the motion of the robot would need to become
stereotyped to achieve the most reliable classification? These questions relate
to a central theme of BIOTACT on active sensing, in which the appropriate
sensation for the task is actively selected by adapting the sensor in response to
information received about the environment, and will be a focus of future work.
A general classifier of whisker data 11
Acknowledgments. The authors thank members of ATLAS (Active Touch
Laboratory at Sheffield), the Bristol Robotics Laboratory, and the BIOTACT
(BIOmimetic Technology for vibrissal ACtive Touch) consortium. This work was
supported by EU Framework projects BIOTACT (ICT-215910), ICEA (IST-
027819) and CSN (ICT-248986).
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