In proceeding of: Knowledge Enterprise: Intelligent Strategies in Product Design, Manufacturing, and Management, Proceedings of PROLAMAT 2006, IFIP TC5 International Conference, June 15-17, 2006, Shanghai, China
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 01/2006; 16(12):1111-9. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone is a complex porous composite structure with specific characteristics such as viscoelasticity and anisotropy, both in morphology and mechanical properties. Bone defects are regularly filled with artificial tissue grafts, which should ideally have properties similar to those of natural bone. Open cell composite foams made of bioresorbable poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA) and ceramic fillers, hydroxyapatite (HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), were processed by supercritical CO2 foaming. Their internal 3D-structure was then analysed by micro-computed tomography (microCT), which evidenced anisotropy in morphology with pores oriented in the foaming direction. Furthermore compressive tests demonstrated anisotropy in mechanical behaviour, with an axial modulus up to 1.5 times greater than the transverse modulus. Composite scaffolds also showed viscoelastic behaviour with increased modulus for higher strain rates. Such scaffolds prepared by gas foaming of polymer composite materials therefore possess suitable architecture and properties for bone tissue engineering applications.
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