Cleavage lines in the facial skin of Japanese cadavers
The Bulletin of Tokyo Medical and Dental University 07/1976; 23(2):93-100.
Since Langer published his work on the cleavage lines of the skin in 1861, many Japanese and foreign authors have referred to Langer's lines as the most appropriate guides for skin incisions giving minimum scarring after heelings, but it has recently been suggested that the cleavage lines of Langer do not constitute a suitable guide for making an incision. Furthermore, comparison with directions of the lines described in the published textbooks has shown some discrepancies in detail among these descriptions, especially in the face. Therefore, Japanese cleavage lines were examined in the facial region of seven male and four female Japanese cadavers, and the following results were obtained. 1) Forehead: The long axes of the cleavage lines tend to run transversely as a whole. 2) Eyelids: The lines run, drawing a concentric loops, aroung the eye-fissures. 3) Lips: The main direction of the lines on the upper lip is radial upwardly, and the lines radiate downward on the lower lip.
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ABSTRACT: The cleavage lines experimentally produced on the facial region in 30 Japanese cadavers were investigated macroscopically and histologically. The results obtained showed the same directional arrangement of the cleavage lines, fibrous connective tissues (especially the collagen fibres) and blood vessels.Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery 05/1983; 11(2):58-63. DOI:10.1016/S0301-0503(83)80017-4
Article: The Tangled Web of Langer's Lines[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Langer's lines are often considered to be guides for elective surgical incisions. Interestingly, Karl Langer was not the first to describe the property of skin that leads to the lines he depicted, nor are these lines in common use today. Rather, it is common that relaxed skin tension lines provide a guide for cosmetically pleasing surgical results. Nevertheless, Langer did conduct extensive studies on human skin that remain as a scholarly body of work. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Clinical Anatomy 03/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.1002/ca.22278 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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