TerraSAR-X Dual Receive Antenna Mode - Channel Reconstruction and Impact on the GMTI Performance.
ABSTRACT TerraSAR-X is a high resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite which provides the option to split the antenna in along-track direction and sample two physical channels separately. This so-called dual receive antenna (DRA) mode is implemented by use of a Magic-T hybrid junction which provides the sum and difference channel data instead of the fore and aft channel data. One way to exploit this spatial degree of freedom is to reconstruct the fore and aft channel data in the processing. The critical issue with the fore and aft channel reconstruction is the fact, that for space-based radar systems very high precision calibration is required. This is even more difficult since the wide bandwidth pulses employed by the radar makes the receive hardware transformation frequency dependent. In this paper a fore and aft channel reconstruction approach is described based on an estimation of the receive hardware transformation matrix by use of internal calibration pulses and calibration beams. The quality gain of the fore and aft channel reconstruction is demonstrated with experimental data and results on the ground moving target indication (GMTI) capability are shown.