Parser Combination by Reparsing.
ABSTRACT We present a novel parser combination scheme that works by reparsing input sen- tences once they have already been parsed by several different parsers. We apply this idea to dependency and constituent parsing, generating results that surpass state-of-the- art accuracy levels for individual parsers.
- SourceAvailable from: Alon Lavie[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a classifier-based parser that produces constituent trees in linear time. The parser uses a basic bottom-up shift-reduce algorithm, but employs a classifier to determine parser actions instead of a grammar. This can be seen as an exten-sion of the deterministic dependency parser of Nivre and Scholz (2004) to full constituent parsing. We show that, with an appropriate feature set used in classifi-cation, a very simple one-path greedy parser can perform at the same level of accuracy as more complex parsers. We evaluate our parser on section 23 of the WSJ section of the Penn Treebank, and obtain precision and recall of 87.54% and 87.61%, respectively.11/2005;
Conference Proceeding: Discriminative Training of a Neural Network Statistical Parser.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Discriminative methods have shown signican t improvements over traditional generative meth- ods in many machine learning applications, but there has been dicult y in extending them to natural language parsing. One problem is that much of the work on discriminative methods conates changes to the learning method with changes to the parameterization of the problem. We show how a parser can be trained with a dis- criminative learning method while still param- eterizing the problem according to a generative probability model. We present three methods for training a neural network to estimate the probabilities for a statistical parser, one gen- erative, one discriminative, and one where the probability model is generative but the training criteria is discriminative. The latter model out- performs the previous two, achieving state-of- the-art levels of performance (90.1% F-measure on constituents).Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, 21-26 July, 2004, Barcelona, Spain.; 01/2004
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ABSTRACT: This paper explores the possibilities of improving parsing results by combining outputs of several parsers. To some extent, we are porting the ideas of Henderson and Brill (1999) to the world of dependency structures. We differ from them in exploring context features more deeply. All our experiments were conducted on Czech but the method is language-independent. We were able to significantly improve over the best parsing result for the given setting, known so far. Moreover, our experiments show that even parsers far below the state of the art can contribute to the total improvement.01/2005;
Proceedings of the Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the ACL, pages 129–132,
New York, June 2006. c ?2006 Association for Computational Linguistics
Parser Combination by Reparsing
Kenji Sagae and Alon Lavie
Language Technologies Institute
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
We present a novel parser combination
scheme that works by reparsing input sen-
tences once they have already been parsed
by several different parsers. We apply this
idea to dependency and constituent parsing,
generating results that surpass state-of-the-
art accuracy levels for individual parsers.
Over the past decade, remarkable progress has
been made in data-driven parsing. Much of this
work has been fueled by the availability of large
corpora annotated with syntactic structures, espe-
cially the Penn Treebank (Marcus et al., 1993). In
fact, years of extensive research on training and
testing parsers on the Wall Street Journal (WSJ)
corpus of the Penn Treebank have resulted in the
availability of several high-accuracy parsers.
We present a framework for combining the out-
put of several different accurate parsers to produce
results that are superior to those of each of the in-
dividual parsers. This is done in a two stage proc-
ess of reparsing. In the first stage, m different
parsers analyze an input sentence, each producing
a syntactic structure. In the second stage, a parsing
algorithm is applied to the original sentence, taking
into account the analyses produced by each parser
in the first stage. Our approach produces results
with accuracy above those of the best individual
parsers on both dependency and constituent pars-
ing of the standard WSJ test set.
In dependency reparsing we focus on unlabeled
dependencies, as described by Eisner (1996). In
this scheme, the syntactic structure for a sentence
with n words is a dependency tree representing
head-dependent relations between pairs of words.
When m parsers each output a set of
dependencies (forming m dependency structures)
for a given sentence containing n words, the
dependencies can be combined in a simple word-
by-word voting scheme, where each parser votes
for the head of each of the n words in the sentence,
and the head with most votes is assigned to each
word. This very simple scheme guarantees that the
final set of dependencies will have as many votes
as possible, but it does not guarantee that the final
voted set of dependencies will be a well-formed
dependency tree. In fact, the resulting graph may
not even be connected. Zeman & Žabokrtský
(2005) apply this dependency voting scheme to
Czech with very strong results. However, when
the constraint that structures must be well-formed
is enforced, the accuracy of their results drops
Instead, if we reparse the sentence based on the
output of the m parsers, we can maximize the
number of votes for a well-formed dependency
structure. Once we have obtained the m initial
dependency structures to be combined, the first
step is to build a graph where each word in the
sentence is a node. We then create weighted
directed edges between the nodes corresponding to
words for which dependencies are obtained from
each of the initial structures.1 In cases where more
than one dependency structure indicates that an
edge should be created, the corresponding weights
are simply added. As long as at least one of the m
initial structures is a well-formed dependency
structure, the directed graph created this way will
1 Determining the weights is discussed in section 4.1.
Once this graph is created, we reparse the
sentence using a dependency parsing algorithm
such as, for example, one of the algorithms
described by McDonald et al. (2005). Finding the
optimal dependency structure given the set of
weighted dependencies is simply a matter of
finding the maximum spanning tree (MST) for the
directed weighted graph, which can be done using
the Chu-Liu/Edmonds directed MST algorithm
(Chu & Liu, 1965; Edmonds, 1967). The
maximum spanning tree maximizes the votes for
dependencies given the constraint that the resulting
structure must be a tree. If projectivity (no
crossing branches) is desired, Eisner’s (1996)
dynamic programming algorithm (similar to CYK)
for dependency parsing can be used instead.
In constituent reparsing we deal with labeled con-
stituent trees, or phrase structure trees, such as
those in the Penn Treebank (after removing traces,
empty nodes and function tags). The general idea
is the same as with dependencies. First, m parsers
each produce one parse tree for an input sentence.
We then use these m initial parse trees to guide the
application of a parse algorithm to the input.
Instead of building a graph out of words (nodes)
and dependencies (edges), in constituent reparsing
we use the m initial trees to build a weighted parse
chart. We start by decomposing each tree into its
constituents, with each constituent being a 4-tuple
[label, begin, end, weight], where label is the
phrase structure type, such as NP or VP, begin is
the index of the word where the constituent starts,
end is the index of the word where the constituent
ends plus one, and weight is the weight of the con-
stituent. As with dependencies, in the simplest
case the weight of each constituent is simply 1.0,
but different weighting schemes can be used.
Once the initial trees have been broken down into
constituents, we put all the constituents from all of
the m trees into a single list. We then look for each
pair of constituents A and B where the label, begin,
and end are identical, and merge A and B into a
single constituent with the same label, begin, and
end, and with weight equal to the weight of A plus
the weight of B. Once no more constituent mergers
are possible, the resulting constituents are placed
on a standard parse chart, but where the constitu-
ents in the chart do not contain back-pointers indi-
cating what smaller constituents they contain.
Building the final tree amounts to determining
these back-pointers. This can be done by running a
bottom-up chart parsing algorithm (Allen, 1995)
for a weighted grammar, but instead of using a
grammar to determine what constituents can be
built and what their weights are, we simply con-
strain the building of constituents to what is al-
ready in the chart (adding the weights of constitu-
ents when they are combined). This way, we per-
form an exhaustive search for the tree that repre-
sents the heaviest combination of constituents that
spans the entire sentence as a well-formed tree.
A problem with simply considering all constitu-
ents and picking the heaviest tree is that this favors
recall over precision. Balancing precision and re-
call is accomplished by discarding every constitu-
ent with weight below a threshold t before the
search for the final parse tree starts. In the simple
case where each constituent starts out with weight
1.0 (before any merging), this means that a con-
stituent is only considered for inclusion in the final
parse tree if it appears in at least t of the m initial
parse trees. Intuitively, this should increase preci-
sion, since we expect that a constituent that ap-
pears in the output of more parsers to be more
likely to be correct. By changing the threshold t
we can control the precision/recall tradeoff.
Henderson and Brill (1999) proposed two parser
combination schemes, one that picks an entire tree
from one of the parsers, and one that, like ours,
builds a new tree from constituents from the initial
trees. The latter scheme performed better, produc-
ing remarkable results despite its simplicity. The
combination is done with a simple majority vote of
whether or not constituents should appear in the
combined tree. In other words, if a constituent ap-
pears at least (m + 1)/2 times in the output of the m
parsers, the constituent is added to the final tree.
This simple vote resulted in trees with f-score sig-
nificantly higher than the one of the best parser in
the combination. However, the scheme heavily
favors precision over recall. Their results on WSJ
section 23 were 92.1 precision and 89.2 recall
(90.61 f-score), well above the most accurate
parser in their experiments (88.6 f-score).
In our dependency parsing experiments we used
unlabeled dependencies extracted from the Penn
Treebank using the same head-table as Yamada
and Matsumoto (2003), using sections 02-21 as
training data and section 23 as test data, following
(McDonald et al., 2005; Nivre & Scholz, 2004;
Yamada & Matsumoto, 2003). Dependencies ex-
tracted from section 00 were used as held-out data,
and section 22 was used as additional development
data. For constituent parsing, we used the section
splits of the Penn Treebank as described above, as
has become standard in statistical parsing research.
Dependency Reparsing Experiments
Six dependency parsers were used in our combina-
tion experiments, as described below.
The deterministic shift-reduce parsing algorithm
of (Nivre & Scholz, 2004) was used to create two
parsers2, one that processes the input sentence from
left-to-right (LR), and one that goes from right-to-
left (RL). Because this deterministic algorithm
makes a single pass over the input string with no
back-tracking, making decisions based on the pars-
er’s state and history, the order in which input to-
kens are considered affects the result. Therefore,
we achieve additional parser diversity with the
same algorithm, simply by varying the direction of
parsing. We refer to the two parsers as LR and RL.
The deterministic parser of Yamada and Ma-
tsumoto (2003) uses an algorithm similar to Nivre
and Scholz’s, but it makes several successive left-
to-right passes over the input instead of keeping a
stack. To increase parser diversity, we used a ver-
sion of Yamada and Matsumoto’s algorithm where
the direction of each of the consecutive passes over
the input string alternates from left-to-right and
right-to-left. We refer to this parser as LRRL.
(McDonald et al., 2005) was used with no altera-
tions. Unlike the deterministic parsers above, this
parser uses a dynamic programming algorithm
(Eisner, 1996) to determine the best tree, so there
is no difference between presenting the input from
left-to-right or right-to-left.
Three different weight configurations were con-
sidered: (1) giving all dependencies the same
weight; (2) giving dependencies different weights,
depending only on which parser generated the de-
pendency; and (3) giving dependencies different
parser described in
2 Nivre and Scholz use memory based learning in their
experiments. Our implementation of their parser uses
support vector machines, with improved results.
weights, depending on which parser generated the
dependency, and the part-of-speech of the depend-
ent word. Option 2 takes into consideration that
parsers may have different levels of accuracy, and
dependencies proposed by more accurate parsers
should be counted more heavily. Option 3 goes a
step further, attempting to capitalize on the specific
strengths of the different parsers.
The weights in option 2 are determined by com-
puting the accuracy of each parser on the held-out
set (WSJ section 00). The weights are simply the
corresponding parser’s accuracy (number of cor-
rect dependencies divided by the total number of
dependencies). The weights in option 3 are deter-
mined in a similar manner, but different accuracy
figures are computed for each part-of-speech.
Table 1 shows the dependency accuracy and
root accuracy (number of times the root of the de-
pendency tree was identified correctly divided by
the number of sentences) for each of the parsers,
and for each of the different weight settings in the
reparsing experiments (numbered according to
their descriptions above).
Reparse dep 1 91.8
Reparse dep 2 92.1
Reparse dep 3 92.7
Table 1: Dependency accuracy and root accuracy of
individual dependency parsers and their combination
under three different weighted reparsing settings.
Constituent Reparsing Experiments
The parsers that were used in the constituent
reparsing experiments are: (1) Charniak and John-
son’s (2005) reranking parser; (2) Henderson’s
(2004) synchronous neural network parser; (3)
Bikel’s (2002) implementation of the Collins
(1999) model 2 parser; and (4) two versions of Sa-
gae and Lavie’s (2005) shift-reduce parser, one
using a maximum entropy classifier, and one using
support vector machines.
Henderson and Brill’s voting scheme mentioned
in section 3 can be emulated by our reparsing ap-
proach by setting all weights to 1.0 and t to (m +
1)/2, but better results can be obtained by setting
appropriate weights and adjusting the preci-
sion/recall tradeoff. Weights for different types of
constituents from each parser can be set in a simi-
lar way to configuration 3 in the dependency ex-
periments. However, instead of measuring accu-
racy for each part-of-speech tag of dependents, we
measure precision for each non-terminal label.
The parameter t is set using held-out data (from
WSJ section 22) and a simple hill-climbing proce-
dure. First we set t to (m + 1)/2 (which heavily
favors precision). We then repeatedly evaluate the
combination of parsers, each time decreasing the
value of t (by 0.01, say). We record the values of t
for which precision and recall were closest, and for
which f-score was highest.
Table 2 shows the accuracy of each individual
parser and for three reparsing settings. Setting 1 is
the emulation of Henderson and Brill’s voting. In
setting 2, t is set for balancing precision and recall.
In setting 3, t is set for highest f-score.
Bikel (Collins) 88.3
Sagae/Lavie (a) 86.9
Sagae/Lavie (b) 88.0
Reparse 2 91.8
Reparse 3 93.2
Table 2: Precision, recall and f-score of each constituent
parser and their combination under three different
We have presented a reparsing scheme that pro-
duces results with accuracy higher than the best
individual parsers available by combining their
results. We have shown that in the case of de-
pendencies, the reparsing approach successfully
addresses the issue of constructing high-accuracy
well-formed structures from the output of several
parsers. In constituent reparsing, held-out data can
be used for setting a parameter that allows for bal-
ancing precision and recall, or increasing f-score.
By combining several parsers with f-scores ranging
from 91.0% to 86.7%, we obtain reparsed results
with a 92.1% f-score.
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