# Learning Relations Using Collocations.

**ABSTRACT** This paper describes the application of statistical analysis of large corpora to the problem of extracting semantic relations from unstructured text. We regard this approach as a viable method for generating input for the construction of ontologies as ontologies use well-defined semantic relations as building blocks (cf. van der Vet & Mars 1998). Starting from a short description of our corpora as well as our language analysis tools, we discuss in depth the automatic generation of collocation sets. We further give examples of different types of relations that may be found in collocation sets for arbitrary terms. The central question we deal with here is how to postprocess statistically generated collocation sets in order to extract named relations. We show that for different types of relations like cohyponyms or instance-of-relations, different extraction methods as well as additional sources of information can be applied to the basic collocation sets in order to verify the existence of a specific type of semantic relation for a given set of terms.

**0**Bookmarks

**·**

**78**Views

- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**In this paper, we explore complex network properties of word collocation networks (Ferret, 2002) from four different genres. Each document of a particular genre was converted into a network of words with word collocations as edges. We analyzed graphically and statistically how the global properties of these networks varied across different genres, and among different network types within the same genre. Our results indicate that the distributions of network properties are visually similar but statistically apart across different genres, and interesting variations emerge when we consider different network types within a single genre. We further investigate how the global properties change as we add more and more collocation edges to the graph of one particular genre, and observe that except for the number of vertices and the size of the largest connected component, network properties change in phases, via jumps and drops.10/2013; - SourceAvailable from: Christian Wolff01/2002: pages 147-154;
- SourceAvailable from: Sara Tonelli
##### Conference Paper: Key-Concept extraction for ontology engineering

[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**We present a framework for supporting ontology engineering by exploiting key-concept extraction. The framework is implemented in an existing wiki-based collaborative platform which has been extended with a component for terminology extraction from domain-specific textual corpora, and with a further step aimed at matching the extracted concepts with pre-existing structured and semi-structured information. Several ontology engineering related tasks can benefit from the availability of this system: ontology construction and extension, ontology terminological validation and ranking, and ontology concepts ranking.Proceedings of the 18th international conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management; 10/2012

Page 1

Learning Relations using Collocations

Gerhard Heyer, Martin Läuter, Uwe Quasthoff, Thomas Wittig, Christian Wolff

Leipzig University

Computer Science Institute, Natural Language Processing Department

Augustusplatz 10 / 11

D-04109 Leipzig

{heyer, laeuter, quasthoff, wittig, wolff}@informatik.uni-leipzig.de

Abstract

This paper describes the application of statistical analysis of

large corpora to the problem of extracting semantic relations

from unstructured text. We regard this approach as a viable

method for generating input for the construction of ontologies as

ontologies use well-defined semantic relations as building

blocks (cf. van der Vet & Mars 1998). Starting from a short

description of our corpora as well as our language analysis tools,

we discuss in depth the automatic generation of collocation sets.

We further give examples of different types of relations that may

be found in collocation sets for arbitrary terms. The central

question we deal with here is how to postprocess statistically

generated collocation sets in order to extract named relations.

We show that for different types of relations like cohyponyms or

instance-of-relations, different extraction methods as well as

additional sources of information can be applied to the basic

collocation sets in order to verify the existence of a specific type

of semantic relation for a given set of terms.

1

Corpus Linguistics is generally understood as a branch of

computational linguistics dealing with large text corpora

for the purpose of statistical processing of language data

(cf. Armstrong 1993, Manning & Schütze 1999). With the

availability of large text corpora and the success of robust

corpus processing in the nineties, this approach has re-

cently become increasingly popular among computational

linguists (cf. Sinclair 1991, Svartvik 1992).

Since 1995 a German text corpus of more than 300 mil-

lion words has been collected (cf. Quasthoff 1998B,

Quasthoff & Wolff 2000), containing approx. 6 million

different word forms in approx. 13 million sentences,

which serves as input for the analysis methods described

below. Similarly structured corpora have recently been set

up for other European languages as well (English, French,

Dutch), with more languages to follow in the near future

(see table 1).

Analysis of Large Text Corpora

German

300 M

13.4 M

6 M

English

250 M

13 M

1.2 M

Dutch

22 M

1.5 M

600,000

French

15 M

860,000

230,000

word tokens

sentences

word types

Table 1: Basic Characteristics of the Corpora

The basic goal of this corpus-based approach is to collect

large amounts of textual data as input for semantic proc-

essing. Starting off from a rather simple data model tai-

lored for large amounts of data and efficient processing

using a relational data base system at storage level we

employ a simple yet powerful technical infrastructure for

processing texts to be included in the corpus. Beside basic

procedures for text integration into the corpus various

tools have been developed for post-processing linguistic

data. Among them the automatic calculation of sentence-

based word collocations stands out as an especially valu-

able tool for corpus-based language technology applica-

tions (see Quasthoff 1998A, Quasthoff & Wolff 2000).

Additional, application oriented tools exist for search

engine optimization as well as automatic document classi-

fication (see Heyer, Quasthoff & Wolff 2000). The cor-

pora are available on the WWW (http://www. wortschatz.

uni-leipzig.de) and may be used as a large online diction-

ary.

2

The occurrence of two or more words within a well-

defined unit of information (sentence, document) is called

a collocation. For the selection of meaningful and signifi-

cant collocations, an adequate collocation measure has to

be defined. In the literature, quite a number of different

collocation measures can be found; for an in-depth dis-

cussion of various collocation measures and their applica-

tion cf. Smadja 1993, Lemnitzer 1998, Krenn 2000.

Collocations

2.1

In the following, our approach towards measuring the

significance of the joint occurrence of two words A and B

in a sentence is discussed. Let

a, b be the number of sentences containing A and B,

k

be the number of sentences containing both A

and B,

n

be the total number of sentences.

The Collocation Measure

Our significance measure calculates the probability of

joint occurrence of rare events. The results of this meas-

ure are quite similar to the well-known log-likelihood-

measure (cf. Krenn 2000):

Let x = ab/n and define:

1

0

1

i

log 1 e

!

sig( , )

A B

.

log

k

∑

xi

i

x

n

−

−

=

−−⋅

=

For 2x < k, we get the following approximation which is

much easier to calculate:

sig(A,B) = (x – k log x + log k!) / log n

In the case of next neighbor collocations we replace the

definition of the above variables by the following. Instead

of a sentence we consider pairs (A, B) of words which are

next neighbors in this sentence. Hence, instead of one

sentence of n words we have n - 1 pairs. For right neigh-

bor collocations (A, B) let

a, b be the number of pairs of type (A, ?) and (?, B)

resp.,

k

be the number of pairs (A, B),

Page 2

n

be the total number of pairs. This equals the total

number of running words minus the number of

sentences.

Given these variables, the significance measure is calcu-

lated as shown above. In general, this measure yields

semantically acceptable collocation sets for values above

an empirically determined positive threshold (see exam-

ples in section 3 below).

2.2

In order to describe basic properties of this measure, we

write sig(n, k, a, b) instead of sig(A, B) where n, k, a, and

b are defined as above.

Simple co-occurance: A and B occur only once, and they

occur together:

sig(n,1,1,1) ? 1

Independence: A and B occur statistically independently

with probabilities p and q:

sig(n,npq,np,nq) ? ?

Additivity: The unification of the words B and B‘ just adds

the corresponding significances. For k/b ? ????? we have

sig(n,k,a,b) + sig(n,k‘,a,b‘) ? sig(n,k+k‘,a,b+b‘)

Enlarging the corpus by a factor m:

sig(mn, mk, ma, mb) = m sig(n, k, a, b)

Properties of the Collocation Measure

(for n??).

(for n??).

1.3

For calculating the collocation measure for any reasonable

pairs we first count the joint occurrences of each pair.

This problem is complex both in time and storage. Nev-

ertheless, we managed to calculate the collocation meas-

ure for any pair with total frequency of at least 3 for each

component. Our approach is based on extensible ternary

search trees (cf. Bentley & Sedgewick 1998) where a

count can be associated to a pair of word numbers. The

memory overhead from the original implementation could

be reduced by allocating the space for chunks of 100,000

nodes at once. Even when using this technique on a large

memory computer more than one run through the corpus

may be necessary, taking care that every pair is only

counted once. The resulting word pairs above a threshold

significance are put into a database where they can be

accessed and grouped in many different ways. As collo-

cations are calculated for different language corpora, our

examples will be taken from the English as well as the

German database.

Finding Collocations

1.4

Beside textual output of collocation sets, visualizing them

as graphs is an additional type of representation: We

choose a word and arrange its collocates in the plane so

that collocations between collocates are taken into ac-

count. This results in graphs that show homogeneity

where words are interconnected and they show separation

where collocates have little in common. Linguistically

speaking, polysemy is made visible (see fig. 1 below).

Technically speaking, we use simulated annealing to

position the words (see Davidson & Harel 1996). Line

thickness represents the significance of the collocation. Of

course, all words in the graph are linked to the central

Visualization of Collocations

word, the rest of the picture is automatically computed,

but represents semantic connectedness surprisingly well.

Unfortunately the relations between the words are just

presented, but not yet named. Fig. 1 shows the collocation

graph for space. Three different meaning contexts can be

recognized in the graph:

•

real estate,

•

computer hardware, and

•

astronautics.

The connection between address and memory results from

the fact that address is another polysemous concept.

Fig. 1: Collocation Graph for space

3

If we fix one word and look at its set of collocates, then

some semantic relations appear more often than others.

The following example shows the most significant collo-

cations for king ordered by significance:

queen (90), mackerel (83), hill (49), Milken (47), royal (44),

monarch (33), King (30), crowned (30), migratory (30), rook

(29), throne (29), Jordanian (26), junk-bond (26), Hussein (25),

Saudi (25), monarchy (25), crab (23), Jordan (22), Lekhanya

(21), Prince (21), Michael (20), Jordan's (19), palace (19),

undisputed (18), Elvis (17), Shah (17), deposed (17), Panchayat

(16), Zahir (16), fishery (16), former (16), junk (16), constitution

(15), exiled (15), Bhattarai (14), Presley (14), Queen (14),

crown (14), dethroned (14), him (14), Arab (13), Moshoeshoe

(13), himself (13), pawns (13), reigning (13), Fahd (12), Nepali

(12), Rome (12), Saddam (12), once (12), pawn (12), prince

(12), reign (12), [...] government (10) [...]

The following types of relations can be identified:

•

Cohyponymy (e. g. Shah, queen, rook, pawn),

•

top-level syntactic relations, which translate to se-

mantic ‘actor-verb’ and often used properties of a

noun (reign; royal, crowned, dethroned),

•

instance-of (Fahd, Hussein, Moshoeshoe),

•

special relations given by multiwords (A prep/det/

conj B, e. g. king of Jordan), and

•

unstructured set of words describing some subject

area, e. g. constitution, government.

Note that synonymy rarely occurs in the lists. The rela-

tions may be classified according to the properties sym-

metry, anti-symmetry, and transitivity.

Relations Represented by Collocations

Page 3

3.1

Let us call a relation r symmetric if r(A, B) always implies

r(B, A). Examples of symmetric relations are

•

synonymy,

•

cohyponomy (or similarity),

•

elements of a certain subject area, and

•

relations of unknown type.

Usually, sentence collocations express symmetric rela-

tions.

Symmetric Relations

3.2

Let us call a relation r anti-symmetric if r(A, B) never

implies r(B, A). Examples of anti-symmetric relations are

•

hyponymy and

•

relations between properties and its owners like ac-

tion and actor or class and instance.

Usually, next neighbor collocations of two words express

anti-symmetric relations. In the case of next neighbor

collocations consisting of more than two words (like A

prep/det/conj B e. g. Samson and Delilah), the relation

might be symmetric, for instance in the case of conjunc-

tions like and or or (cf. Läuter & Quasthoff 1999).

Anti-symmetric Relations

3.3

Transitivity of a relation means that r(A, B) and r(B, C)

always implies r(A, C). In general, a relation found ex-

perimentally will not be transitive, of course. But there

may be a part where transitivity holds.

Some of the most prominent transitive relations are the

cohyponymy, hyponymy, synonymy, and is-a relations.

Note that our graphical representation mainly shows tran-

sitive relations per construction. This kind of relation is

also able to give further results in the combination proce-

dures described below.

Transitivity

4

While we may intellectually identify types of semantic

relations in collocations sets, additional information and /

or analysis is needed for automatically naming these rela-

tions. In the following, we give different examples for

such complementary information.

Other Sources for Relations

4.1

Simple pattern-based relations can be extracted from text

if knowledge about information categories like proper

names is used as input. As our corpora include several

large lists of classified terms like names of professions

and last names, extraction rules may be defined:

i. Extraction of first names:

A pattern like (profession) ? (last name) implies

(with high probability) that the unknown category

? is in fact a first name. Examples are

actress Julia Roberts

hockey hero Wayne Gretzky

Senator Jesse Helms

ii. Extraction of instance-of-relations given the class

name: The pattern (class name) like ? implies (with

Pattern Based Relations

high probability) that the unknown category ? is in

fact a instance name. Examples are:

metals like nickel, arsenic and lead

rivers like the Ganges

newspapers like Pravda

The applicability of patterns like these may heavily de-

pend on language characteristics like preposition usage.

This type of extraction method is simple and well known;

in our approach it is combined with collocation analysis,

thus yielding better results both in quality and in quantity

(see section 5).

4.2

German compounds consist of two (or more) words glued

together by varying mechanisms. The head word (coming

second) is further determined by the first part of the com-

pound (modifier), which may originally be an adjective,

another noun or a verb stem. In almost all cases a seman-

tic relation between both parts and the compound can be

found. In section 5.3 we show how the combination of

compound segmentation with collocation analysis can be

used for identifying named relations in compounds.

Compounds

4.3

Feature Vectors Given by Collocations and

Clustering

To investigate the meaning of a word A, its contexts in the

texts have to be examined because they reflect the use of

A. If two words A and B have similar contexts, that is,

they are alike in their use, this indicates that there is a

semantic relation between A and B of some kind.

A kind of average context for every word A is formed by

all collocations for A with a significance above a certain

threshold.

This average context of A is transferred into a feature

vector of A using all words as features as usual. This re-

sults in sparse vectors used for description. The feature

vector of word A is indeed a description of the meaning of

A, because the most important words of the contexts of A

are included.

Clustering of feature vectors can be used to investigate the

relations between a group of similar words and to figure

out whether or not all the relations are of the same kind.

The following HACM algorithm has an additional natural

reason to stop. It works bottom up like this:

•

All words are treated as (basic) items. Each item has

a description (feature vector).

•

In each step of the clustering process the two items A

and B with the most similar description vectors are

searched and fitted together to create a new complex

item C combining the words in A and B. The scalar

product is used for determining similarity between

vectors.

Each step of the clustering algorithm reduces the

number of items by one.

•

The feature vector for C is constructed from the fea-

ture vectors of A and B. Therefore we calculate a

combined significance for C with respect to all words

Xi as follows:

Page 4

)X (C,

nn

n

+

)X(C,

nn

n

+

)X(C,

i

ba

b

i

ba

a

i

sigsigsig

+=

for all i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n with

n total number of words in the corpus,

na

number of words combined in item A, and

nb

number of words combined in item B.

The algorithm stops if only one item is left or if all

remaining feature vectors are orthogonal. This results

usually in a very natural clustering if the threshold for

constructing the feature vectors is suitably chosen.

A cluster of words with probably the same semantic

relation between each of them can be found in the analy-

sis tree by comparing the similarity between items inside

the items A and B (if these items are complex) with the

calculated similarity between A and B, when fitting them

together to C. If there is a large difference between them,

this is an indication for a different relation between words

combined in item A and words combined in item B. In the

appendix, some examples for this type of semantic clus-

tering are given.

•

Symmetric clustering

If we assume that a cluster represents a semantic relation,

the cluster should represent the possible symmetry and

transitivity of the underlying semantic relation.

Symmetry and transitivity ensure that the terms to be

clustered will themselves be responsible for the cluster-

ing. This in turn implies that the terms found in the cluster

will also be found in the feature vector in prominent posi-

tions.

In example 1 (Appendix) the clustering result for January

is shown. In the first column we find the terms to be

clustered, on the right hand side there are the components

of the feature vectors ordered by significance.

The clustered items both appear together and share a cer-

tain aspect. The names of the months or weekdays as

names for periods of time cluster together, just because

they are collocates with one another. The same can be

shown to be true for teammates, metals, colors or fruit.

Anti-symmetric clustering

For anti-symmetric relations the situation is different.

Again the elements of the original set to be clustered

share a certain aspect, but this aspect is described by a

distinct set of words. Presumably this second set of words

will also cluster. Moreover, it will use the original set as

clustering terms.

This is shown in example 2 (Appendix). Here we show

that the set given by Präsident, Vorsitzender, Vorsitzende,

Sprecher, Sprecherin properly clusters using words like

sagte, erklärte, teilte (German verbs of utterance).

Conversely, in example 3 (Appendix) we find the set

verwies, mitteilte, meinte, bestätigte, betonte properly

clusters using terms from the above cluster.

4.4

Homogeneous Relations: Iterating the

Collocation Process

The extraction of collocation sets from plain text can be

viewed as some kind of information condensation. This

process can be iterated if collocation sets themselves are

subjected to the collocation analysis again and again. We

might expect that some of the collocational relations are

strengthened while others will vanish from the iterated

sets of collocations which we will call higher order collo-

cations. We describe two experiments for the iteration

process: Instead of plain text we start with collocation

sets, using sentence collocations for experiment 1 and

next neighbor collocations for experiment 2. In the case of

a symmetric relation we observe a strengthening while

iterating sentence collocations. In the case of an anti-

symmetric relation we observe the same when iterating

next neighbor collocations.

Experiment 1: Iterating Sentence Collocations

The production of collocations is applied to sets of sen-

tence collocations instead of sentences. E.g., the collec-

tion of 500,000 sentence collocations has the following

‘sentence‘ (collocation set) for Hemd (shirt): Hemd

Krawatte Hose weißes Anzug weißem Jeans trägt trug

bekleidet weißen Jacke schwarze Jackett schwarzen Weste

kariertes Schlips Mann

Example for iterated sentence collocations of Eisen (iron):

Original collocations: Stahl, heißes, heiße, Kupfer, Man-

gan, alten, Feuer, Zink, Holz, Marmor

Iterated collocations: Kupfer, Stahl, Zink, Aluminium,

Magnesium, Mangan, Nickel, Blei, Zinn, Gold

As expected, the iterated collocation set only contains

cohyponyms.

Experiment 2: Iterating Next Neighbor Collocations

In this experiment, the production of collocations is ap-

plied to sets of next neighbor collocations instead of sen-

tences. The collection of 250,000 next neighbor colloca-

tions has the following two ‘sentences‘ for Hemd (shirt):

weißes weißem weißen blaues kariertes kariertem offenem

aufs karierten gestreiftes letztes [...] (left neighbors)

näher bekleidet ausgezogen spannt trägt aufknöpft ausge-

plündert auszieht wechseln aufgeknöpft ausziehen [...]

(right neighbors)

Example for iterated neighbor collocations of Auto (car):

Original collocations: fahren, Wagen, prallte, Fahrer,

seinem, fuhr, fährt, Polizei, erfaßt, gefahren

Iterated collocations: Wagen, Lastwagen, Fahrzeug,

Autos, Personenwagen, Bus, Zug, Haus, Lkw, Pkw

Example for iterated neighbor collocations of erklärte

(explained):

Original collocations: Sprecher, werde, gestern, seien,

Wir, bereit, wolle, Vorsitzende, Anfrage, Präsident

Iterated collocations: sagte, betonte, sprach, kündigte,

wies, nannte, warnte, bekräftigte, meinte, kritisierte

Both, experiment 1 and experiment 2 result in collocation

sets carrying a homogeneous semantic relation.

5

Combining Non-contradictory Partial

Results

In section 3 we have given evidence that collocation sets

contain various types of semantic relations without ex-

plicitly naming them while section 4 has introduced a

Page 5

number of methods for relation extraction. This section

shows different ways of combining results of these ex-

traction approaches. The results of these combination give

more and / or better results.

5.1

Two or more of the above algorithms may suggest a cer-

tain relation between two words, for instance, cohypo-

nymy.

Example: If both the second order collocations introduced

in section 4.4, and clustering by feature vectors (sec-

tion 4.3) independently yield similar sets of words as a

result, this may be taken as an indication of cohyponymy

between the words, e. g. sagte, betonte, kündigte, wies,

nannte, warnte, bekräftigte, meinte […] (German verbs of

utterance).

Identical Results

5.2

In the second combination type a known relation given by

one method of extraction is verified by an identical but

unnamed second result as follows:

Result 1: There is certain relation r between A and B

Result 2: There is some strong (but unknown) relation

between A and B (e. g. given by a collocation set)

Conclusion: Result 1 holds with more evidence.

One can use this support of orthogonal tests in many

ways: Without knowing anything about deeper language

structure or parsing we can filter out verbs just by testing

if a string accepts at least two of the endings –(e)s, -ing

and –ed/t. The recall is remarkably high. In German we

tested only one mechanism of noun formation from a verb

and got 70% of all verbs with a precision of 83%.

Word formation mechanisms can be explored further. In

German compound nouns are joint together to form one

word. There are several (highly irregular) patterns of

gluing letters between the words. Testing all available

word tokens whether they could be the compound of two

stemmed words from word lists of 93,000 current nouns

reveals just under a million compounds in their stemmed

form. Here stemming accuracy is supported by the exis-

tence of both compounds in the basic list. When elimi-

nating a hundred words which are prone to generate

wrong separations this algorithm achieves an accuracy of

90%.

Example:

Result 2: The German compound Entschädigungsgesetz

can be divided into Gesetz and Entschädigung with an

unknown relation.

Result 1 is given by the four word next neighbor colloca-

tion

Gesetz über die

Stundenkilometer is analyzed as Kilometer pro Stunde.

In these examples, result 1 is not enough because there are

collocations like Woche auf dem Tisch which do not de-

scribe a meaningful semantic relation.

Supporting Second Results

Entschädigung. Similarly

5.3

Result 1: There is relation r between A and B

Result 2: B is similar to B’ (cohyponymy)

Result 3: There is some strong but unknown relation be-

tween A and B’

Conclusion: There is a relation r between A and B’

Combining Three Results

Example: As result 1 we might know that Schwanz (tail)

is part of Pferd (horse). Similar terms to Pferd are both

Kuh (cow) and Hund (dog) (result 2). Both of them have

the term Schwanz in their set of significant collocations

(result 3). Hence we might correctly conjecture that both

Kuh and Hund have a tail (Schwanz) as part of their body.

In contrast, Reiter (rider) is a strong collocation to Pferd

and might (incorrectly) be conjectured to be another

similar concept, but Reiter is no collocation with respect

to Schwanz. Hence, the absence of result 3 prevents us

from making an incorrect conclusion.

5.4

Let us call an property p important, if it is preserved under

similarity. This strong feature can be used as follows:

Result 1: A has a certain important property p

Result 2: B is similar to A (i. e., B is a cohyponym of A)

Conclusion: B has the same property p

Example: We consider A and B as similar if they are in the

set of right neighbor collocations of Hafenstadt (port

town) (result 2). If we know that Hafenstadt is a property

of its typical right neighbors (result 1) we may infer this

property for more then 200 cities like Split, Sidon,

Durban, Kismayo, Tyrus, Vlora, Karachi, Durres, […].

Similarity Used to Infer a Strong Property

5.5

Result 1: A, B, C, ... are collocates of a certain term.

Result 2: Some of them belong to a certain subject area.

Conclusion: All of them belong to this subject area.

Example: Consider the following top entries in the collo-

cation set of carcinoma: patients, cell, squamous,

radiotherapy, lung, thyroid, treated, hepatocellular,

metastases, adenocarcinoma, cervix, irradiation, breast,

treatment, CT, therapy, renal, cases, bladder, cervical,

tumor, cancer, metastatic, radiation, uterine, ovarian,

chemotherapy, […]

If we know that some of them belong to the subject area

Medicine, we can add this subject area to the other mem-

bers of the collocation set as well.

Subject Area Inferred from Collocation Sets

6

In this paper, we described different approaches for the

extraction of named semantic relations from large text

corpora. The types of relations are compatible with rela-

tions typically used for constructing ontologies (cf.

Chandrasekaran 1999:22). The combination of different

types of input information as well as the application of

robust statistical analysis methods guarantees that this

approach may be applied to texts from arbitrary domains

and different languages. Especially, our results may be

used for the automatic generation of semantic relations in

order to fill and expand ontology hierarchies.

Conclusion

7

Armstrong, S. (ed.) (1993). Using Large Corpora. Computa-

tional Linguistics 19(1/2) (1993) [Special Issue on Corpus

Processing, repr. MIT Press 1994].

Bentley, J.; Sedgewick, R. (1998). “Ternary Search Trees.”

In: Dr. Dobbs Journal, April 1998.

References

Page 6

Chandrasekaran, B. et al. (1999). “What are Ontologies, and

Why Do We Need Them?” In: Intelligent Systems 14(1)

(1999), 20-26.

Davidson, R., Harel, D. (1996). “Drawing Graphs Nicely

Using Simulated Annealing.” In: ACM Transactions on

Graphics 15(4), 301-331.

Francis, W.; Kucera, H. (1982). Frequency Analysis of Eng-

lish Language. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Heyer, G.; Quasthoff, U.; Wolff, Ch. (2000). “Aiding Web

Searches by Statistical Classification Tools.“ In: Knorz,

G.; Kuhlen, R. (eds.) (2000). Informationskompetenz -

Basiskompetenz in der Informationsgesellschaft. Proc. 7.

Intern. Symposium f. Informationswissenschaft, ISI

2000, Darmstadt. Konstanz: UVK, 163-177.

Krenn, B. (2000). “Distributional and Linguistic Implications

of Collocation Identification.” In: Proc. Collocations

Workshop, DGfS Conference, Marburg, March 2000.

Läuter, M., Quasthoff, U. (1999). “Kollokationen und seman-

tisches Clustering.” In: Gippert, J. (ed.) (1999). Multilingu-

ale Corpora. Codierung, Strukturierung, Analyse. Proc. 11.

GLDV-Jahrestagung. Prague: Enigma Corporation, 34-41.

Lemnitzer, L. (1998). “Komplexe lexikalische Einheiten in

Text und Lexikon.” In: Heyer, G.; Wolff, Ch. (eds.). Lin-

guistik und neue Medien. Wiesbaden: Dt. Universitäts-

verlag, 85-91.

Manning, Ch. D.; Schütze, H. (1999). Foundations of Statis-

tical Language Processing. Cambridge/MA, London: The

MIT Press.

Quasthoff, U. (1998A). “Tools for Automatic Lexicon

Maintenance: Acquisition, Error Correction, and the Gen-

eration of Missing Values.“ In: Proc. First International

Conference on Language Resources & Evaluation

[LREC], Granada, May 1998, Vol. II, 853-856.

Quasthoff, U. (1998B). “Projekt der deutsche Wortschatz.”

In: Heyer, G., Wolff, Ch. (eds.). Linguistik und neue Me-

dien. Wiesbaden: Dt. Universitätsverlag, 93-99.

Quasthoff, U.; Wolff, Ch. (2000). “An Infrastructure for

Corpus-Based Monolingual Dictionaries.” In: Proc.

LREC-2000. Second International Conference On Lan-

guage Resources and Evaluation. Athens, May/June 2000,

Vol. I, 241-246.

Sinclair, J. (1991). Corpus Concordance Collocation. Ox-

ford: Oxford University Press.

Smadja F. (1993). “Retrieving Collocations from Text:

Xtract.” In: Computational Linguistics 19(1) (1993), 143-

177.

Svartvik, J. (ed.) (1992). Directions in Corpus Linguistics:

Proc. Nobel Symposium 82, Stockholm, 4-8 August 1991.

Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter [=Trends in Linguistics 65].

van der Vet, P. E.; Mars, N. J. I. (1998). “Bottom-Up Con-

struction of Ontologies.” In: IEEE Transactions on Know-

ledge and Data Engineering 10(4) (1998), 513-526.

8

8.1

Jahres _____________________ Uhr, Ende, abend, vergangenen, Anfang, Jahres, Samstag, Freitag, Mitte, Sonntag

Donnerstag _ | Uhr, abend, heutigen, Nacht, teilte, Mittwoch, Freitag, worden, mitteilte, sagte

Dienstag _|_ | Uhr, abend, heutigen, teilte, Freitag, worden, kommenden, sagte, mitteilte, Nacht

Montag _ | | Uhr, abend, heutigen, Dienstag, kommenden, teilte, Freitag, worden, sagte, morgen

Mittwoch _|_|_ | Uhr, abend, heutigen, Nacht, Samstag, Freitag, Sonntag, kommenden, nachmittag

Samstag ___ | | Uhr, abend, Samstag, Nacht, Sonntag, Freitag, Montag, nachmittag, heutigen

Sonntag _ | | | Uhr, abend, Samstag, Nacht, Montag, kommenden, morgen, nachmittag, vergangenen

Freitag _|_|_|_____________ | Uhr, abend, Ende, Jahres, Samstag, Anfang, Freitag, Sonntag, heutigen, worden

Januar _________________ | | Uhr, Ende, Jahres, Anfang, Mitte, Samstag, Mai, August, März, Januar

August _______________ | | | Uhr, Ende, Jahres, Anfang, Mitte, Samstag, Mai, August, Januar, März

Juli _____________ | | | | Uhr, Jahres, Ende, Anfang, Mitte, Mai, Samstag, August, Januar, März

März ___________ | | | | | Uhr, Ende, Jahres, Anfang, Mitte, Samstag, Mai, Januar, März, April

Mai _________ | | | | | | Uhr, Ende, Jahres, Anfang, Mitte, Samstag, März, Januar, Mai, vergangenen

September _______ | | | | | | | Uhr, Ende, Jahres, Anfang, Mitte, Mai, Januar, März, Samstag, vergangenen

Februar _ | | | | | | | | Uhr, Januar, Jahres, Anfang, Mitte, Ende, März, November, Samstag, vergangenen

Dezember _|___ | | | | | | | | Uhr, Jahres, Ende, Anfang, Mitte, Mai, Januar, März, Samstag, vergangenen

November _ | | | | | | | | | Uhr, Jahres, Ende, Anfang, Mitte, September, vergangenen, Dezember, Samstag

Oktober _|_ | | | | | | | | | Uhr, Ende, Jahres, Anfang, Mai, Mitte, Samstag, September, März, vergangenen

April _ | | | | | | | | | | Uhr, Ende, Jahres, Mai, Anfang, März, Mitte, Prozent, Samstag, Hauptversammlung

Juni _|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_|_

Appendix: Clustering Examples

Example (1): Clustering Months and Days

8.2

Präsident _________ sagte, Boris Jelzin, erklärte, stellvertretende, Bill Clinton, stellvertretender, Richter

Vorsitzender _______ | sagte, erklärte, stellvertretende, stellvertretender, Richter, Abteilung, bestätigte

Vorsitzende ___ | | sagte, erklärte, stellvertretende, Richter, bestätigte, Außenministeriums, teilte, gestern

Sprecher _ | | | sagte, erklärte, Außenministeriums, bestätigte, teilte, gestern, mitteilte, Anfrage

Sprecherin _|_|_ | | sagte, erklärte, stellvertretende, Richter, Abteilung, bestätigte, Außenministeriums, sagt

Chef _ | | | Abteilung, Instituts, sagte, sagt, stellvertretender, Professor, Staatskanzlei, Dr.

Leiter _|___|_|_|_

Example (2): Clustering Leaders

8.3

verwies _____________ Sprecher, werde, gestern, Vorsitzende, Polizei, Sprecherin, Anfrage, Präsident, gebe

mitteilte ___________ | Sprecher, werde, gestern, Vorsitzende, Polizei, Sprecherin, Anfrage, Präsident, Montag

meinte _______ | | Sprecher, werde, gestern, Vorsitzende, Sprecherin, Anfrage, Präsident, gebe, Interview

bestätigte_____ | | | Sprecher, werde, gestern, Vorsitzende, Sprecherin, Anfrage, Präsident, gebe, Interview

betonte ___ | | | | Sprecher, werde, gestern, Vorsitzende, Sprecherin, Präsident, gebe, Interview, würden, Bonn

sagte _ | | | | | Sprecher, werde, gestern, Vorsitzende, Sprecherin, Präsident, gebe, Interview, würden

erklärte _|_|_|_|_ | | Sprecher, werde, gestern, Vorsitzende, Sprecherin, Präsident, Anfrage, gebe, Interview

warnte _ | | | Präsident, Vorsitzende, SPD, eindringlich, Ministerpräsident, CDU, Außenminister, Zugleich

sprach _|_______|_|_|_

Example (3): Clustering Verbs of Utterance

#### View other sources

#### Hide other sources

- Available from psu.edu
- Available from Martin Läuter · Jun 1, 2014
- Available from Christian Wolff · Jun 1, 2014