A Dynamic Approach for MPE and Weighted MAX-SAT.
ABSTRACT The problem of Most Probable Explanation (MPE) arises in the scenario of probabilistic inference: finding an assignment to all variables that has the maximum likelihood given some evidence. We consider the more general CNF-based MPE prob- lem, where each literal in a CNF-formula is asso- ciated with a weight. We describe reductions be- tween MPE and weighted MAX-SAT, and show that both can be solved by a variant of weighted model counting. The MPE-SAT algorithm is quite competitive with the state-of-the-art MAX-SAT, WCSP, and MPE solvers on a variety of problems.
- SourceAvailable from: psu.edu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The problem of learning discrete Bayesian networks from data is encoded as a weighted MAX-SAT problem and the MaxWalkSat local search algorithm is used to address it. For each dataset, the per-variable summands of the (BDeu) marginal likelihood for different choices of parents ('family scores') are computed prior to applying MaxWalkSat. Each permissible choice of parents for each variable is encoded as a distinct propositional atom and the associated family score encoded as a 'soft' weighted single-literal clause. Two approaches to enforcing acyclicity are considered: either by encoding the ancestor relation or by attaching a total order to each graph and encoding that. The latter approach gives better results. Learning experiments have been conducted on 21 synthetic datasets sampled from 7 BNs. The largest dataset has 10,000 datapoints and 60 variables producing (for the 'ancestor' encoding) a weighted CNF input file with 19,932 atoms and 269,367 clauses. For most datasets, MaxWalkSat quickly finds BNs with higher BDeu score than the 'true' BN. The effect of adding prior information is assessed. It is further shown that Bayesian model averaging can be effected by collecting BNs generated during the search.06/2012;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This is the first of two papers presenting and evaluating the power of a new framework for combinatorial optimization in graphical models, based on AND/OR search spaces. We introduce a new generation of depth-first Branch-and-Bound algorithms that explore the AND/OR search tree using static and dynamic variable orderings. The virtue of the AND/OR representation of the search space is that its size may be far smaller than that of a traditional OR representation, which can translate into significant time savings for search algorithms. The focus of this paper is on linear space search which explores the AND/OR search tree. In the second paper we explore memory intensive AND/OR search algorithms. In conjunction with the AND/OR search space we investigate the power of the mini-bucket heuristics in both static and dynamic setups. We focus on two most common optimization problems in graphical models: finding the Most Probable Explanation in Bayesian networks and solving Weighted CSPs. In extensive empirical evaluations we demonstrate that the new AND/OR Branch-and-Bound approach improves considerably over the traditional OR search strategy and show how various variable ordering schemes impact the performance of the AND/OR search scheme.Artificial Intelligence 01/2009; · 2.19 Impact Factor
A Dynamic Approach to MPE and Weighted MAX-SAT
Tian Sang1, Paul Beame1, and Henry Kautz2
1Department of Computer Science and Engineering
University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195
2Department of Computer Science
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627
The problem of Most Probable Explanation (MPE)
arises in the scenario of probabilistic inference:
finding an assignment to all variables that has the
maximum likelihood given some evidence.
consider the more general CNF-based MPE prob-
lem, where each literal in a CNF-formula is asso-
ciated with a weight. We describe reductions be-
tween MPE and weighted MAX-SAT, and show
that both can be solved by a variant of weighted
model counting. The MPE-SAT algorithm is quite
competitive with the state-of-the-art MAX-SAT,
WCSP, and MPE solvers on a variety of problems.
Constraint Satisfaction Problems(CSP) havebeen the subject
of intensive study; many real-world domains can be formal-
ized by CSP models and solved by either complete or incom-
plete reasoning methods. Beyond classic CSP, where a solu-
tion must satisfy all hard constraints, some CSP models are
capable of handling both hard and soft constraints. The def-
inition of constraints and the measurement of the quality of
a solution vary from model to model, and the goal is usually
to find a best solution to the constraints, rather than simply
a solution. For example, the constraints can be associated
with probability, cost, utility, or weight; the goal can be to
minimize costs of violated constraints, or to maximize the
likelihood of a variable assignment, etc. However, all fit in
a general framework for soft constraints, namely, semi-ring
based CSPs [Bistarelli et al., 1997]. In this paper, we focus
on two specific models: MPE and weighted MAX-SAT.
MAX-SAT extends SAT to the problem of finding an as-
signment that maximizes the number of satisfied clauses, in
case the formula is unsatisfiable. Weighted MAX-SAT ex-
tends MAX-SAT by adding a weight to each clause, with
the goal of finding an assignment that maximizes the sum
of weights of satisfied clauses.
MAX-SAT problems are solved by either incomplete local
tive search.For most MAX-SAT problems, local search
methodsexhibitbetterspeed andscaling thancompletemeth-
ods. Local search methods, unfortunately, do not provide a
proof that the returned solution is optimal.
MAX-SAT and weighted
The success of modern complete SAT solvers has inspired
SAT algorithms. Recent developments include using unit
propagation for strong bound computation [Li et al., 2005;
2006]; adapting local consistency methods developed for
CSP to MAX-SAT [de Givry et al., 2003]; and using fast
bounds[Aloul et al., 2002].
In probabilistic reasoning, the problem of Most Probable
Explanation (MPE) is to find an assignment to all variables
that has the maximum likelihood given the evidence. Exact
methods for MPE on probability distributions represented by
Bayesian networks include well-known methods such as the
Join Tree algorithm [Jensen et al., 1990], as well as a recent
branch-and-bound algorithm, AND/OR Tree Search [Mari-
nescu and Dechter, 2005]. Since solving MPE exactly is NP-
Hard, local search algorithms have been introduced for ap-
proximation [Park, 2002]. In this paper, we consider MPE
on CNF formulas with weighted literals, where the goal is to
find a solution with maximum product or sum of its literal
weights. This CNF-based MPE problem is strictly more gen-
eral than MPE for discrete Bayesian networks, because any
discrete Bayesian network can be converted to a CNF with
weightedliterals whosesize is linear inthe size ofconditional
probabilitytables (CPTs) of the network[Sang et al., 2005b].
MPE on CNF can be viewed as a special case of Weighted
Model Counting (WMC) [Sang et al., 2005b], and is likely
easier than WMC because we may apply branch-and-bound
based pruning techniques to reduce the search space. We
choose Cachet [Sang et al., 2004], a state-of-the-art model
counting system, as a platform on which to build our
MPE solver, and we extend pruning techniques for sub-
problems with components. As a result, we present MPE-
SAT, a decomposition-based branch-and-bound algorithm
that works on top of WMC and prunes the search space ef-
fectively. Furthermore, we are able to use the dtree algorithm
of[Huang and Darwiche, 2003; Darwiche, 2002]to boost the
performance on problems with good decomposability.
In general, MPE and weighted MAX-SAT illustrate two
complementary ways of representing soft constraints: either
having weight on variables or having weight on constraints
(clauses). Although they have apparently different represen-
tations of weight and goals, they can be converted to each
other by adding auxiliary variables or clauses, possibly at
some loss in efficiency. In addition to describing these re-
ductions, we show how to formulate CNF-based MPE as an
iterative pseudo-Boolean satisfiability (PBSAT) process.
In our experimentswe compareour MPE solver MPE-SAT
with other state-of-the-art complete MPE/MAX-SAT solvers
as well as a pseudo-Boolean solver on a variety of MPE and
MAX-SAT problems. Our approach is quite competitive on
most problems and is significantly faster than each of the
other solvers on at least one of the classes of benchmarks.
2MPE and Weighted MAX-SAT
The MPE problem originated in research on Bayesian net-
works, oneofthe mostpopulargraphicalmodels. A Bayesian
network is a DAG, where each source node has a prior proba-
bility distribution on its values and each non-source node has
a Conditional Probability Table (CPT) specifying the proba-
bility distribution of its values given the values of its parents.
Most Probable Explanation (MPE) is the problem of finding
a complete assignment of values to nodes that has the max-
imum likelihood given some node values as evidence. The
likelihood of a complete assignment is the product of the cor-
responding entries in the conditional probability tables and
the prior probabilities. To solve MPE exactly, one can ei-
ther compile the Bayesian network into a junction tree and
then propagate the evidence [Jensen et al., 1990], or per-
form a branch-and-bound search, e.g., AND/OR tree search
[Marinescu and Dechter, 2005]. Alternatively, one can con-
vert MPE to weighted MAX-SAT and solve it by any local
search algorithm[Park, 2002].
We begin with some definitions:
Definition 1 A CNF formula with weighted literals is a CNF
formula plus a function weight that maps literals to real-
Definition 2 Given a combination operator ⊕ defined on the
reals, the problem of MPE on CNF formulas with weighted
literals is to find a complete satisfying assignment s that has
the maximum ⊕iweight(vi), where viis either the positive
or negativeform of the ith variablein s. To be convenient,we
also define the inverse operator ?. MPE of an unsatisfiable
CNF formula is defined to be 0.
This CNF-based MPE can represent Bayesian-network-
networks to CNF formulaswith weightedliterals[Sang et al.,
2005b; Chavira and Darwiche, 2005]. Practically, setting ⊕
to arithmetic + or × (then ? is either − or /) suffices our
purposes . For example, × is used for likelihood-originated
MPE and + is used for weightedMAX-SAT-originatedMPE.
In the rest of the paper, we will use the short term MPE for
“MPE on CNF formulas with weighted literals”, when there
is no confusion.
The problem of weighted MAX-SAT on a CNF formula is
to find an assignment that has the maximum sum of weights
ofall clausessatisfiedbythatassignment. Wheneveryweight
is 1, weighted MAX-SAT reduces to MAX-SAT.
Both MPE and weighted MAX-SAT optimize a metric of
the weight, the only difference is that MPE has a weight on
each literal and weighted MAX-SAT has a weight on each
clause. Not surprisingly these two representations are equiv-
alent in that they can be directly converted to each other.
MPE to weighted MAX-SAT
We give a simple conversion for MPE on CNF to weighted
MAX-SAT, which is different from the encoding in [Park,
2002] translates MPE on Bayesian Networks to weighted
MAX-SAT. Assuming the combination operator is +,
• for each literal in MPE, a unit clause is added with
weight equal to the weight of the literal.
• all original clauses in MPE are assigned an “infinite”
weight, which is a number chosen to be at least as large
as the sum of the weights added in the previous step.
Since all original clauses have an infinite weight, any op-
timal solution in weighted MAX-SAT must satisfy them and
maximize the sum of weights of satisfied unit clauses, which
obviously maximizes the sum of literal weights in MPE and
therefore is an optimal solution in MPE as well, and vice
versa. The converted formula has a mixture of hard and soft
constraints, which is a challenge for exact weighted MAX-
SAT solvers: to be efficient, they must take advantage of the
Weighted MAX-SAT to MPE
Givry et. al. describeda Pseudo-Booleanencodingfor
MAX-SAT. Although that does not explicitly refer to MPE,
it can be modified for MPE by adding proper weights. Our
conversion is as follows:
• for every variable x in weighted MAX-SAT, let
weight(x) = weight(¬x) = 0.
• for every clause ciin weighted MAX-SAT, an auxiliary
literal ¬yiis added to ci, with weight(¬yi) = 0 and
weight(yi) = weight(ci).
While the original formula for MAX-SAT may be unsat-
isfiable, the converted formula is guaranteed to be satisfiable
because one can always obtain a trivial solution by setting all
auxiliary y variables to false. When the combinationoperator
is fixed to sum, solvingMPE on the convertedformulafinds a
solutionwith amaximumsumofweightofy variables,which
is equivalent to maximizing the sum of weights of satisfied
clauses in weighted MAX-SAT. This encoding does not add
any clause, but needs as many auxiliary variables as the num-
ber of clauses. The inflated number of variables makes solv-
ing MPE more difficult, especially since auxiliary variables
make every clause trivially satisfiable and thus unit propaga-
tion and conflict-driven learning become unavailable.
MPE and Pseudo-Boolean SAT
Since the encoding in[de Givry et al., 2003]converts MAX-
SAT to Pseudo-Boolean SAT and (weighted) MAX-SAT and
MPE are equivalent, we observe that there is a close relation-
ship between MPE as Pseudo-Boolean SAT as well.
Definition 3 Given a CNF formula φ and a set C of linear
constraints over variables in φ, Pseudo-Boolean SAT (PB-
SAT) is to find a total assignment that satisfies both φ and
linear constraints in C.A linear constraint has the form
i=1aivi ≥ d where viis a variable that takes value 0 or
1, aiand d are real-valued constants and n is the number of
We show how to convert a likelihood-based MPE to an
iterative PBSAT process. In the context of likelihood, the
combination operator ⊕ becomes ×, and a variable vi has
weight(vi) = piand weight(¬vi) = 1 − pi. Without loss
of generality, we assume 0 < pi< 1, otherwise if pi= 0 (1)
we solve the simplified formula with viinstantiated to 0 (1).
TheMPE goalis to finda completesatisfyingassignmentthat
(1 − pi)=
1 − pi)
(1 − pi).
function, this is equivalent to maximizing
1 − pi)
i(1 − pi) is a constant and log is an increasing
1 − pi)xi.
This linear expression can be used as the left side of a
linear constraint in PBSAT, but we still need to figure
out what bound d to put on the right side.
tion of MPE, we know that the optimal value must be in
for the bound d using binary search. At each step when d is
set, we solve PBSAT with a single linear constraint
1 − pi)xi ≥ d.
i=1Max(pi,(1−pi)) ]. Now we can iteratively search
In this way, we can get d arbitrarily close to the optimal value
in a bounded number of steps.
3Algorithms and the Implementation
In this section, we first examine a simple MPE algorithm and
then show how to enhance it with some advanced techniques.
The na¨ ıve Algorithm 1 is a simple modificationof the classic
DPLL search. First if the formulais empty(alreadysatisfied),
DPLL-MPE returns the optimal value (e.g., sum or product)
current value; if the formula is UNSAT, DPLL-MPE returns
0 by definition; otherwise it selects a variable to branch, re-
cursively solves each branch and then returns the best value,
which is the better one found in the two branches.
Unlike DPLL for SAT where the search halts when a SAT
leaf is found,DPLL-MPEperformsan exhaustivesearchover
all possible SAT leaves for the optimal value. It can be very
slow without proper pruning, and that is why branch-and-
bound algorithms are widely used for many similar optimiza-
tion tasks including MAX-SAT and weighted CSP.
DPLL for MPE
Algorithm 1 DPLL-MPE
DPLL-MPE(φ) // returns MPE of CNF formula φ
if φ is empty, return optimal value of unassigned variables
if φ has an empty clause, return 0
select an unassigned variable v ∈ φ to branch
return Max(DPLL-MPE(φ|v=0) ⊕ weight(¬v) ,
DPLL-MPE(φ|v=1) ⊕ weight(v))
Algorithm 2 MPE-SAT
MPE-SAT(φ,lb) // returns MPE of CNF formula φ
if φ is empty, return optimal value of unassigned vars
if φ has an empty clause, do nogood learning and return 0
do dynamic component detection: solve each separately
do cache lookup: reuse previously computed values
do dynamic bounding: if E(φ) ≤ lb return 0 // pruning
select an unassigned literal v ∈ φ by branching heuristics
lresult = MPE-SAT(φ|v=0,lb ? weight(¬v))
update lb according to lresult
rresult = MPE-SAT(φ|v=1,lb ? weight(v))
result = Max(lresult ⊕ weight(¬v),rresult ⊕ weight(v))
do caching: AddToCache(φ, result)
3.2Branch-and-Bound and Decomposition
Branch-and-boundis the underlying mechanism for most ex-
haustive search algorithms that find an optimal solution. The
branch-and-boundalgorithm maintains a global best solution
found so far, as a lower bound. If the estimated upper bound
of a node is not better than the lower bound, the node is
pruned and the search continues with other branches.
Previous research has shown that decomposition and
caching techniques are critical for such exhaustive search to
be efficient [Darwiche, 2002; Bacchus et al., 2003; Sang et
al., 2004; Marinescu and Dechter, 2005]. However, with dy-
namic decomposition the simple form of branch-and-bound
must be modified. During the search, a problem may decom-
pose into several independent sub-problems (components)
that, for efficiency, one would like to analyze separately. The
portions of the global bounds to the individual components.
To address the above issues, we develop MPE-SAT, a
new decomposition-based branch-and-bound algorithm with
dynamic decomposition and caching.
DPLL-MPE with the following function blocks. Since there
are a number of similarities with the related AND/OR tree
search algorithm [Marinescu and Dechter, 2005], we briefly
compare our methods with that algorithm.
Dynamic Component Detection A connected component
detection is performed dynamically for every non-trivial φ
in the search. Since components of φ are independent sub-
problems with disjoint variables, they are solved separately
and then their results are combined to get the result for φ
(though Algorithm 2 does not show details of these obvi-
ous steps due to space limitation). (In AND/OR tree search,
components are determined statically using the pseudo tree
constructed before the search.)
Caching and Cache lookup When the value of a com-
ponent is known, the component with its value is stored in
a hash table (caching) for later reuse (cache lookup), which
avoids repeated computation. A component to store can be
its correspondingclauses or a short signatureof the clauses to
save space. Even when the exact value of a component is un-
known because of pruning in its subtree, a proper bound can
be cached for reuse too. The purpose of this bound caching
is to save the partial work already done for a component that
is to be pruned. A cached bound can be used as an estimated
upper bound of the component for pruning and it is updated
whenever a tighter bound or the exact value of the same com-
ponent is found. (AND/OR tree search caches the context
instead of the component itself.)
Dynamic Bounding The parameterlb, initially ∞ or given
by local search, is the lower bound for φ when φ is created.
E(φ) is an upper bound estimation of the true value of φ,
which can be simply ⊕v∈φMax(weight(v),weight(¬v)), a
cachedboundora resultbyspecial computation(as described
in section 3.4). If E(φ) is at most lb, the current branch is
pruned for it will not yield a better result. Note that for a
subproblem, lb for its right branch may be better than lb for
its left branch, because solving the left branch may improve
the previous lb. When a sub-problem (component) is being
solved, only local information is needed for pruning; i.e., the
bound from its parent and the bounds from sibling compo-
nents, which are updated dynamically. A parent’s lb is imme-
diately broken and passed into its sub-problems for pruning
(top-down). For example, if sub-problemS splits into S1and
S2then lbS1= lbS? E(S2). and lbS2= lbS? E(S1).
However, since S2is solved after S1, lbS2should be dynam-
ically updated with the exact value of S1replacing E(S1).
(AND/OR tree searchuses dynamicboundingas well but col-
lects bounds from sub-problems (bottom-up).)
Branching Heuristics Any dynamic heuristic good for
DPLL search will work, and it turns out that decomposition-
based heuristics are often very useful (as discussed in section
3.4). (AND/OR tree search uses the statically-constructed
pseudo-tree heuristic, which also aims at decomposition.)
Nogood Learning The well-known conflict-driven clause
learningtechniqueforsatisfiability testing, e.g.,[Zhanget al.,
2001], can be directly used for CNF-based MPE. Learned
clauses implicitly prune the infeasible search space.
Comparison Since the top-down scheme passes the best
known lower bound to a sub-problem once it is available,
MPE-SAT may examine fewer nodes than AND/OR tree
does when pruning occurs. MPE-SAT benefits from nogood
learning that dynamically changes its variable ordering (with
VSIDS or VSADS heuristic), while nogood learning is likely
less useful for the static pseudo-tree variable ordering. The
dynamic componentdetection in MPE-SAT is more powerful
than the static detection in AND/OR tree search because the
latter may miss some decomposition due to dynamic effects;
however, the overhead of the former is much higher. Finally,
the more expensive component caching in MPE-SAT is more
powerful than context caching in AND/OR tree search, be-
cause different contexts may lead to the same component.
requiring exhaustive search. In DPLL-MPE if we replace the
max operation by sum (and the optimal value of a SAT leaf is
one) we will get a na¨ ıve model countingalgorithm. Using the
weighted model counting system Cachet [Sang et al., 2004]
as a platform, we have implemented the MPE-SAT algorithm
and the following to better support it.
Component Processing Components are processed in a
depth-first order and the search stays within a component un-
til it is finished. This component processing strategy is well
suited to dynamic bounding for sibling components, but it
is different from that for model counting. In Cachet, once
a component is found SAT during search, the work on the
rest of that component will be temporarily suspended and an
unexploited component (if available) will be processed next.
That strategy works well for finding UNSAT components as
soon as possible, which is good for model counting; but in
MPE-SAT we want to continueworkingona SAT component
until it is fully done, because the known value of a finished
component yields better lower bounds for its siblings when
they are checked for pruning.
Optimal Solution Retrieval In order to get the optimal
solution as well as the optimal value, we need to maintain
all partial solutions associated with all the active components
on the current search path, from which we can compose the
optimal solutionat backtracking. The optimalpartial solution
of a component must be cached together with its exact value.
Branching Heuristics The dynamic branching heuristics
for SAT and model counting such as VSIDS, VSADS and
EUPC[Moskewiczet al., 2001;Sang et al., 2005a]workwell
for MPE too. These heuristics aim at maximizing the effect
of unit propagationor avoiding the infeasible search space by
learning from conflicts. However for MAX-SAT problems,
we have found that the dtree-based semi-dynamic branch-
ing heuristic [Huang and Darwiche, 2003; Darwiche, 2002;
2004]is often better, because in those problemsunit propaga-
tionsandconflicts thatguidedynamicheuristics arenolonger
available whereas structural decomposition based heuristics
are affected less. The dtree program by [Huang and Dar-
wiche, 2003]computes a static variable group orderingbased
on dtree decomposition [Darwiche, 2002], which is fed
to MPE-SAT. The semi-dynamic branching heuristic makes
choices by dynamic heuristic for variables in the same group,
but prefers variables in a group with higher priority and the
group priorities are determined statically by dtree. The time
forrunningdtreeis usually insignificantcomparedto the time
for solving the problem. A nice property of dtree is that after
each group of variables is instantiated (from high to low pri-
ority), the problem is guaranteed to decompose. However, if
a problemhas a large tree-width, the sizes of the high priority
groups by dtree can be so large that the search space blows
up before the problem decomposes.
Upper Bound Computation We are able to extend the
UP heuristic [Li et al., 2005] to weighted MAX-SAT in our
solver. Computing an upper bound on the weight of the satis-
fied clauses of formula φ is equivalent to computing a lower
bound on the weight of violated clauses of φ. The weight of
violated clauses of φ can be estimated as follows:
CostLB = 0
for each unit clause of φ
Simplify φ by setting the current unit clause to true
if there is an empty clause (conflict)
increment CostLB by the minimum weight of the
empty clause and the clauses for deriving it, and
remove clauses for deriving the empty clause from φ
CostLB is the lower bound of violated clauses at the end.
We alsoadopta trickfrompreviousMAX-SATsolversthat
when the value of a known solution and the current estimated
value differ only by one, unit clauses are safely propagated.
We tested with both CNF-based MPE and MAX-SAT.
The CNF-based MPE problems are either from random
3-CNF or structured CNF formulas with random literal
weights (equivalent to weighted MAX-SAT), or trans-
lated from Bayesian networks (special because of the
ad-hoc Bayesian-network-to-CNF encoding).
SAT problems are structured ones used in previous liter-
ature and fault diagnosis problems generated from stan-
dard circuit benchmarks that are challenging for many
solvers. More details of these problems can be found at
We used the following state-of-the-art solvers:
Toolbar [de Givry et al., 2003; 2005]: an exact weighted
various levels of local consistency. It is a generic solver for
weightedCSP andweightedMAX-SAT.We usedversion3.0.
UP [Li et al., 2005] : an exact branch-and-bound MAX-
SAT solver using unit propagation and distinguishing inde-
pendent conflicts for powerful lower bound computation.
MaxSatz [Li et al., 2006] : an exact branch-and-bound
MAX-SAT solver extending UP with sophisticated lower
bound computation techniques. Highly optimized for MAX-
SAT, it was the winner of the 2006 MAX-SAT evaluation.
PB2 [Aloul et al., 2002] : a pseudo Boolean SAT solver
that takes linear constraints. It can prove the optimality of
encoded MAX-SAT problems. Basically, an auxiliary vari-
able is added for each clause and there is a linear constraint
limiting the sum of these added variables to the given bound.
AoTree[Marinescu and Dechter, 2005]: the AND/OR tree
implementation that works for MPE of Bayesian networks
and weighted CSP.
MPE-SAT: our solver that implements the MPE-SAT al-
gorithm. It is for CNF-based MPE and weighted MAX-SAT.
All experiments were done on a Linux machine with 2.8
GHz Pentium 4 CPU and 4 GB memory, except that we ran
AoTreeona Windowsmachinewith 2.8GHz Pentium4 CPU
and 1.5 GB memory. The runtime cutoff is 600 seconds.
Since not all solvers apply to the same domains, for each do-
main, we show the results only for the solvers that apply.
1.8 2.2 2.6 3 3.4 3.8 4.2
Random MPE (100 variables)
Figure 1: MPE of random 3-CNF (median runtime)
Problems #vars #clausesToolbar PB2 MPE-SAT
Figure 2: MPE of circuit CNF and runtime in seconds.
Problems #NodeInduced widthAoTree MPE-SAT
Figure 3: MPE of grid Bayesian networks and runtime in seconds.
The first domain is MPE on satisfiable random 3-CNF for-
mulas with randomweights between 1 and 1000 on each pos-
itive literal and 0 weight on each negative literal. The prob-
lems were convertedto weightedMAX-SATvia the encoding
in section 2 (introducingonly positiveunit clauses). Since we
use + as the combination operator ⊕ for MPE here, a direct
translation to PBSAT is adding a linear constraint where the
weighted sum of all positive literals is at least a given bound.
In principle we should run PB2 iteratively to optimize this
bound, but we just set the bound as opt (for proving SAT)
and opt + 1 (for proving UNSAT), because PB2 is not effi-
cientenoughonthisdomain. (Thevalueofoptwas thatfound
by other solvers.) For MPE-SAT, we used the weight-based
dynamic heuristic, where variable selections with good unit-
propagated weights are preferred before a solution is found
(to get a good bound early) and bad unit-propagated weights
are preferred afterwords (to get prunings early).
In Figure 1, each point represents the median runtime on
100 instances. On the PB2 curve, the data point of ratio 2.6
is actually a timeout (median > 600 seconds). Compared to
the other two, PB2 is very inefficient at low ratios, frequently
timed out. However, as the problem gets more and more
constrained with ratio increasing towards 4.2, PB2 improves
significantly. MPE-SAT has a similar trend: it is about two
times slower than Toolbar at low ratios, but gains a dramatic
speedup at high ratios. Apparently at high ratios MPE-SAT
and PB2 benefit a lot from clause learning by the underlying
SAT engine, which prunes most infeasible search space. The
curve of Toolbar is rather flat before ratio 4.2. For low ratio
under-constrainedproblems, Toolbar prunes the search space
very effectively using advanced bounding techniques; how-
ever, without nogood learning, it is not effective at pruning
using the constraints and so does poorly on well-constrained
high ratio problems. This effect is amplified with 200 vari-
ables and ratio 4.2: Toolbar often cannot solve an instance in
an hour but MPE-SAT can solve it in a few seconds.
Figure 2 shows the results of MPE on structured circuit
CNF formulas with random variable weights. Clearly most
problems are easy to MPE-SAT but hard or non-solvable to
Toolbar. We also ran PB2 with a na¨ ıve binary search for the
optimal value. PB2 works fine on all problems but one. It
appears that CNF-based MPE suits MPE-SAT and PB2 better
than Toolbar, which is optimized for weighted CSP.
In Figure 3, we compared with AND/OR tree search on