Liver disease in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency detected by screening of 200,000 infants.
ABSTRACT We prosepctively studied 200,000 newborns to determine the frequency and clinical characteristics of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. One hundred and twenty Pi Z, 48 Pi SZ, two PI Z-and one Pi S-infants were identified and followed to the age of six months. Fourteen of 120 Pi Z infants had prolonged obstructive jaundice, nine with severe clinical and laboratory evidence of liver disease. Five had only laboratory evidence of liver disease. Eight other Pi Z infants had minimal abnormalities in serum bilirubin and hepatic enzyme activity and variable hepatosplenomegaly. All 22 Pi Z infants with hepatic abnormalities, two thirds of whom were made, appeared healthy at six months of age. Ninety-eight Pi Z infants did not have clinical liver disease, but liver-function tests gave abnormal results in 44 of 84 at three months, and in 36 of 60 at six months of age. The number of small-for-gestational-age infants was greater (P less than 0.001) among those with clinical liver disease. None of the 48 Pi SZ infants had clinical liver disease, but 10 of 42 at three months and one of 22 at six months of age had abnormal liver function. The Pi Z and Pi SZ phenotypes are associated with covert or readily apparent hepatic dysfunction in the first three months of life.
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ABSTRACT: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is often evaluated in patients with liver disease of unknown etiology. We aimed to describe the practice and yield of AAT testing at a large clinical laboratory. This is the retrospective cohort study of all patients with AAT measurements at one major clinical laboratory between 2003 and 2012. AAT was measured in 4,985 patients by more than 339 physicians. Eight (0.16 %) patients were found to have AAT deficiency disease. Low AAT levels were associated with two clinical factors. Aspartate aminotransferase (>40 IU/L) was inversely related, odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95 % CI (0.32-0.88), while comorbid pulmonary disease was positively correlated, OR 4.00, 95 % CI (1.37-9.30). Non-directed testing was common. More than 90 % of patients with ALT > 40 were simultaneously assessed for AAT deficiency, hepatitis B or C, hemochromatosis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Rates of phenotype utilization were low for patients with low AAT (23, 31.5 %). Phenotype utilization was inversely related to the practice of simultaneous testing for simultaneous autoimmune hepatitis [OR 0.34 (95 % CI 0.13-0.88)], hepatitis B [OR 0.32 (95 % CI 0.11-0.89)], hepatitis C [OR 0.36 (95 % CI 0.13-1.00)], and Wilson disease evaluation [OR 0.35 (95 % CI 0.14-0.92)]. The yield of AAT testing for patients with elevated liver enzymes is low. Utilization of phenotype testing is low and related to non-directed liver testing patterns. These data suggest a role for guidelines and laboratory protocols to encourage directed testing and phenotype utilization.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10620-014-3490-y · 2.55 Impact Factor
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2004; 9(1-3):2873. DOI:10.2741/1444 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency remains an underrecognized genetic disease with predominantly pulmonary and hepatic manifestations. AAT is derived primarily from hepatocytes; however, macrophages and neutrophils are secondary sources. As the natural physiological inhibitor of several proteases, most importantly neutrophil elastase (NE), it plays a key role in maintaining pulmonary protease-antiprotease balance. In deficient states, unrestrained NE activity promotes damage to the lung matrix, causing structural defects and impairing host defenses. The commonest form of AAT deficiency results in a mutated Z AAT that is abnormally folded, polymerized, and aggregated in the liver. Consequently, systemic levels are lower, resulting in diminished pulmonary concentrations. Hepatic disease occurs due to liver aggregation of the protein, while lung destruction ensues from unopposed protease-mediated damage. In this review, we will discuss AAT deficiency, its clinical manifestations, and augmentation therapy. We will address the safety and tolerability profiles of AAT replacement in the context of patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness and outline future directions for work in this field.Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2015; 11:143-51. DOI:10.2147/TCRM.S51474 · 1.34 Impact Factor