A Review of Statistical Approaches to Level Set Segmentation: Integrating Color, Texture, Motion and Shape.
ABSTRACT Since their introduction as a means of front propagation and their first application to edge-based segmentation in the early 90's, level set methods have become increasingly popular as a general framework for image segmentation. In this paper, we present a survey of a specific class of region-based level set segmentation methods and clarify how they can all be derived from a common statistical framework. Region-based segmentation schemes aim at partitioning the image domain by progressively fitting statistical models to the intensity, color, texture or motion in each of a set of regions. In contrast to edge-based schemes such as the classical Snakes, region-based methods tend to be less sensitive to noise. For typical images, the respective cost functionals tend to have less local minima which makes them particularly well-suited for local optimization methods such as the level set method. We detail a general statistical formulation for level set segmentation. Subsequently, we clarify how the integration of various low level criteria leads to a set of cost functionals. We point out relations between the different segmentation schemes. In experimental results, we demonstrate how the level set function is driven to partition the image plane into domains of coherent color, texture, dynamic texture or motion. Moreover, the Bayesian formulation allows to introduce prior shape knowledge into the level set method. We briefly review a number of advances in this domain.
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ABSTRACT: We consider the problem of segmenting an image through the minimization of an energy criterion involving region and boundary functionals. We show that one can go from one class to the other by solving Poisson's or Helmholtz's equation with well-chosen boundary conditions. Using this equivalence, we study the case of a large class of region functionals by standard methods of the calculus of variations and derive the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. We revisit this problem using the notion of shape derivative and show that the same equations can be elegantly derived without going through the unnatural step of converting the region integrals into boundary integrals. We also define a larger class of region functionals based on the estimation and comparison to a prototype of the probability density distribution of image features and show how the shape derivative tool allows us to easily compute the corresponding Gâteaux derivatives and Euler-Lagrange equations. We nally apply this new functional to the problem of regions segmentation in sequences of color images. We briey describe our numerical scheme and show some experimental results.07/2002;
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ABSTRACT: A continuous two-dimensional region is partitioned into a fine rectangular array of sites, or ‘pixels', each pixel having a particular '‘colour’ belonging to a prescribed finite set. The true colouring of the region is unknown but, associated with each pixel, there is a possibly multivariate record which conveys imperfect information about its colour according to a known statistical model. The aim is to reconstruct the true scene, with the additional knowledge that pixels close together tend to have the same or similar colours. In this paper, it is assumed that the local characteristics of the true scene can be represented by a non-degenerate Markov random field. Such information can be combined with the records by Bayes' theorem and the true scene can be estimated according to standard criteria. However, the computational burden is enormous and the reconstruction may reflect undesirable large-scale properties of the random field. Thus, a simple, iterative method of reconstruction is proposed, which does not depend on these large-scale characteristics. The method is illustrated by computer simulations in which the original scene is not directly related to the assumed random field. Some complications, including parameter estimation, are discussed. Potential applications are mentioned briefly.Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. 01/1986; B-48:259-302.
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ABSTRACT: The problem of detection of orientation in finite dimensional Euclidean spaces is solved in the least squares sense. The theory is developed for the case when such orientation computations are necessary at all local neighborhoods of the n -dimensional Euclidean space. Detection of orientation is shown to correspond to fitting an axis or a plane to the Fourier transform of an n -dimensional structure. The solution of this problem is related to the solution of a well-known matrix eigenvalue problem. The computations can be performed in the spatial domain without actually doing a Fourier transformation. Along with the orientation estimate, a certainty measure, based on the error of the fit, is proposed. Two applications in image analysis are considered: texture segmentation and optical flow. The theory is verified by experiments which confirm accurate orientation estimates and reliable certainty measures in the presence of noise. The comparative results indicate that the theory produces algorithms computing robust texture features as well as optical flowIEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 09/1991; · 4.80 Impact Factor