An automated hierarchical gait pattern identification tool employing cross-correlation-based feature extraction and recurrent neural network based classification.
ABSTRACT In this paper Elman's recurrent neural network (ERNN) is employed for automatic identification of healthy and pathological gait and subsequent diagnosis of the neurological disorder in pathological gaits from the respective gait patterns. Stance, swing and double support intervals (expressed as percentages of stride) of 63 subjects were analysed for a period of approximately 300 s. The relevant gait features are extracted from cross-correlograms of these signals with corresponding signals of a reference subject. These gait features are used to train modular ERNNs performing binary and tertiary classifications. The average accuracy of binary classifiers is obtained as 90.6%–97.8% and that of tertiary classifiers is 89.8%. Hence, two hierarchical schemes are developed each of which uses more than one modular ERNN to segregate healthy, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis subjects. The average testing performances of the schemes are 83.8% and 87.1%.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the gait variability in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we first used the nonparametric Parzen-window method to estimate the probability density functions (PDFs) of stride interval and its two subphases (i.e., swing interval and stance interval). The gait rhythm standard deviation (sigma) parameters computed with the PDFs indicated that the gait variability is significantly increased in PD. Signal turns count (STC) was also derived from each outlier-processed gait rhythm time series to serve as a dominant feature, which could be used to characterize the gait variability in PD. Since it was observed that the statistical parameters of swing interval or stance interval were highly correlated with those of stride interval, this article only used the stride interval parameters, i.e., sigma(r) and STC(r) , to form the feature vector in the pattern classification experiments. The results evaluated with the leave-one-out cross-validation method demonstrated that the least squares support vector machine with polynomial kernels was able to provide a classification accurate rate of 90.32% and an area (Az) of 0.952 under the receiver operating characteristic curve, both of which were better than the results obtained with the linear discriminant analysis (accuracy: 67.74%, Az: 0.917). The features and the classifiers used in the present study could be useful for monitoring of the gait in PD.IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering: a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society 04/2010; 18(2):150-8. · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human locomotion is regulated by the central nervous system (CNS). The neurophysiological changes in the CNS due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may cause altered gait cycle duration (stride interval) or other gait rhythm. This article used a statistical method to analyze the altered stride interval in patients with ALS. We first estimated the probability density functions (PDFs) of stride interval from the outlier-processed gait rhythm time series, by using the nonparametric Parzen-window approach. Based on the PDFs estimated, the mean of the left-foot stride interval and the modified Kullback-Leibler divergence (MKLD) can be computed to serve as dominant features. In the classification experiments, the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) with Gaussian kernels was applied to distinguish the stride patterns in ALS patients. According to the results obtained with the stride interval time series recorded from 16 healthy control subjects and 13 patients with ALS, the key findings of the present study are summarized as follows. (1) It is observed that the mean of stride interval computed based on the PDF for the left foot is correlated with that for the right foot in patients with ALS. (2) The MKLD parameter of the gait in ALS is significantly different from that in healthy controls. (3) The diagnostic performance of the nonlinear LS-SVM, evaluated by the leave-one-out cross-validation method, is superior to that obtained by the linear discriminant analysis. The LS-SVM can effectively separate the stride patterns between the groups of healthy controls and ALS patients with an overall accurate rate of 82.8% and an area of 0.869 under the receiver operating characteristic curve.Medical Engineering & Physics 12/2010; 33(3):347-55. · 1.78 Impact Factor
- Ejc Supplements - EJC SUPPL. 01/2010; 8(7):198-199.