Article

Map-aided localization in sparse global positioning system environments using vision and particle filtering.

Journal of Field Robotics (Impact Factor: 2.15). 01/2011; 28:619-643. DOI: 10.1002/rob.20395
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT A map-aided localization approach using vision, inertial sensors when available, and a particle filter is proposed and empirically evaluated. The approach, termed PosteriorPose, uses a Bayesian particle filter to augment global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation solutions with vision-based measurements of nearby lanes and stop lines referenced against a known map of environmental features. These map-relative measurements are shown to improve the quality of the navigation solution when GPS is available, and they are shown to keep the navigation solution converged in extended GPS blackouts. Measurements are incorporated with careful hypothesis testing and error modeling to account for non-Gaussian and multimodal errors committed by GPS and vision-based detection algorithms. Using a set of data collected with Cornell's autonomous car, including a measure of truth via a high-precision differential corrections service, an experimental investigation of important design elements of the PosteriorPose estimator is conducted. The algorithm is shown to statistically outperform a tightly coupled GPS/inertial navigation solution both in full GPS coverage and in extended GPS blackouts. Statistical performance is also studied as a function of road type, filter likelihood models, bias models, and filter integrity tests. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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