Computerized Surveillance for Adverse Drug Events in a Pediatric Hospital
ABSTRACT There are limited data on adverse drug event rates in pediatrics. The authors describe the implementation and evaluation of an automated surveillance system modified to detect adverse drug events (ADEs) in pediatric patients. The authors constructed an automated surveillance system to screen admissions to a large pediatric hospital. Potential ADEs identified by the system were reviewed by medication safety pharmacists and a physician and scored for causality and severity. Over the 6 month study period, 6,889 study children were admitted to the hospital for a total of 40,250 patient-days. The ADE surveillance system generated 1226 alerts, which yielded 160 true ADEs. This represents a rate of 2.3 ADEs per 100 admissions or 4 per 1,000 patient-days. Medications most frequently implicated were diuretics, antibiotics, immunosuppressants, narcotics, and anticonvulsants. The composite positive predictive value of the ADE surveillance system was 13%. Automated surveillance can be an effective method for detecting ADEs in hospitalized children.
SourceAvailable from: Kevin J O'Leary[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Research supports medical record review using screening triggers as the optimal method to detect hospital adverse events (AE), yet the method is labour-intensive. METHOD: This study compared a traditional trigger tool with an enterprise data warehouse (EDW) based screening method to detect AEs. We created 51 automated queries based on 33 traditional triggers from prior research, and then applied them to 250 randomly selected medical patients hospitalised between 1 September 2009 and 31 August 2010. Two physicians each abstracted records from half the patients using a traditional trigger tool and then performed targeted abstractions for patients with positive EDW queries in the complementary half of the sample. A third physician confirmed presence of AEs and assessed preventability and severity. RESULTS: Traditional trigger tool and EDW based screening identified 54 (22%) and 53 (21%) patients with one or more AE. Overall, 140 (56%) patients had one or more positive EDW screens (total 366 positive screens). Of the 137 AEs detected by at least one method, 86 (63%) were detected by a traditional trigger tool, 97 (71%) by EDW based screening and 46 (34%) by both methods. Of the 11 total preventable AEs, 6 (55%) were detected by traditional trigger tool, 7 (64%) by EDW based screening and 2 (18%) by both methods. Of the 43 total serious AEs, 28 (65%) were detected by traditional trigger tool, 29 (67%) by EDW based screening and 14 (33%) by both. CONCLUSIONS: We found relatively poor agreement between traditional trigger tool and EDW based screening with only approximately a third of all AEs detected by both methods. A combination of complementary methods is the optimal approach to detecting AEs among hospitalised patients.BMJ quality & safety 10/2012; 22(2). DOI:10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001102 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that medication errors related to anticonvulsants are common during the transition into the hospital for pediatric patients. The purpose of this work was to evaluate whether children with epilepsy admitted for reasons other than epilepsy experience nonoptimal care in anticonvulsant medication management preceding the occurrence of seizures. Using a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy admitted for reasons other than epilepsy, we created timelines from data in the medical record for the children who experienced seizures. These timelines included the timing and concentration of anticonvulsant administration and seizure occurrence. Three child neurologists independently identified whether nonoptimal care preceded the occurrence of seizures and potentially contributed to the occurrence of the seizure. Of 120 children, 18 experienced seizures and 12 experienced nonoptimal care in anticonvulsant management preceding seizure occurrence. Nonoptimal care that occurred during the transition into the hospital included missed doses of anticonvulsants, delays in administration during which seizures occurred, and patients inadvertently not receiving their home dosing of medication. Anticonvulsant medication errors are known to occur during the transition into the hospital. Here we present a case series of children who experienced nonoptimal care in anticonvulsant medication management who subsequently experienced seizures. Further work to identify how likely the outcome of seizures is following anticonvulsant medication errors, specifically focusing on timing as well as interventions to change the system issues that lead to these errors, is indicated.Journal of child neurology 10/2012; 28(10). DOI:10.1177/0883073812460095 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Voluntary reporting has been the standard method for identifying adverse events in hospitals, yet its effectiveness at identifying a comprehensive array of adverse events has always been in question. The electronic health record (EHR) contains clinical data that can be systematically reviewed to identify adverse events and improve adverse event detection. Active use of an automated trigger tool that is embedded in an EHR can identify systematic issues with delivery of high-risk medications and is cost-effective and efficient. Further development of an automated adverse event detection protocol for pediatrics is needed to apply this approach systematically across pediatric institutions.Pediatric Clinics of North America 12/2012; 59(6):1269-78. DOI:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.08.007 · 2.20 Impact Factor