Independence in Direct-Product Graphs.

Ars Combinatoria -Waterloo then Winnipeg- (Impact Factor: 0.2). 01/1998; 50.
Source: DBLP

ABSTRACT By α(G) the independence number of a graph G (the maximum number of vertices of an independent set in G) is denoted; G×H denotes the direct product of the graphs G,H. The symbol α ̲(G×H)=max(α(G)·|H|,α(H)·|G|) where |G| and |H| are the numbers of vertices of G and H, is introduced. It is investigated, when α(G×H)=α ̲(G×H).

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    ABSTRACT: It was first shown by Cameron and Ku that the group $G=Sym(n)$ has the strict EKR property. Then Godsil and Meagher presented an entirely different proof of this fact using some algebraic properties of the symmetric group. A similar method was employed to prove that the projective general linear group $PGL(2,q)$, with its natural action on the projective line $\mathbb{P}_q$, has the strict EKR property. The main objective in this thesis is to formally introduce this method, which we call the module method, and show that this provides a standard way to prove Erdos-Ko-Rado theorems for other permutation groups. We then, along with proving Erdos-Ko-Rado theorems for various groups, use this method to prove some permutation groups have the strict EKR property. We will also show that this method can be useful in characterizing the maximum independent sets of some Cayley graphs. To explain the module method, we need some facts from representation theory of groups, in particular, the symmetric group. We will provide the reader with a sufficient level of background from representation theory as well as graph theory and linear algebraic facts about graphs.
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    ABSTRACT: A subset in a group $G \leq Sym(n)$ is intersecting if for any pair of permutations $\pi,\sigma$ in the subset there is an $i \in \{1,2,\dots,n\}$ such that $\pi(i) = \sigma(i)$. If the stabilizer of a point is the largest intersecting set in a group, we say that the group has the Erd\H{o}s-Ko-Rado (EKR) property. Moreover, the group has the strict EKR property if every intersecting set of maximum size in the group is either the stabilizer of a point or the coset of the stabilizer of a point. In this paper we look at several families of permutation groups and determine if the groups have either the EKR property or the strict EKR property. First, we prove that all cyclic groups have the strict EKR property. Next we show that all dihedral and Frobenius groups have the EKR property and we characterize which ones have the strict EKR property. Further, we show that if all the groups in an external direct sum or an internal direct sum have the EKR (or strict EKR) property, then the product does as well. Finally, we show that the wreath product of two groups with EKR property also has the EKR property.


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