A Low-Jitter Open-Loop All-Digital Clock Generator With Two-Cycle Lock-Time

Electr. & Electron. Eng. Dept., Korea Univ., Seoul, South Korea
IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems (Impact Factor: 1.36). 10/2009; 17(10):1461-1469. DOI: 10.1109/TVLSI.2008.2004591
Source: DBLP


A portable clock generator, which solves the duty ratio and jitter problems of the input clock, has been developed. In the proposed clock generator, the complementary delay line generates a series of multiphase clocks. The 0-to-1 transition detector finds the 2 pi phase delayed position among the multiphase clocks produced by the complementary delay line, and then, the select signal generator chooses the proper path to generate the delayed output clock. As a result, the proposed open-loop and full-digital architecture achieves a fast lock time of two clock cycles. Also, it is a simple, robust and portable IP and consumes only 17 mW at an input clock frequency of 1.6 GHz. In addition, a complementary delay line is implemented to achieve high phase resolution over a wide frequency range. The proposed clock generator is implemented in a 0.18-mum CMOS process and, occupies an active area of 170 mum times 120 mum. Also, it operates at various input frequencies ranging from 800 MHz to 1.6 GHz.

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    • "Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVLSI.2011.2106170 been demonstrated in [5] and analog and digital solutions to the false detection problem are developed in [1]. DLL-based clock generation with frequency scaling is presented in [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A digital delay-locked loop (DLL) suitable for generation of multiphase clocks in applications such as time-interleaved and pipelined analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) locks in a very wide (40×) frequency range. The DLL provides 12 uniformly delayed phases, free of false harmonic locking. A two-stage digital split-control loop is implemented: a fast-locking coarse acquisition is achieved in four cycles using binary search; a fine linear loop achieves low jitter (9 ps rms @ 600 MHz) and tracks process, voltage, and temperature (PVT) variations. The false harmonic locking detector, the frequency range and the jitter performance among other design considerations are analyzed in detail. The DLL consumes 20 mW and occupies a 470 μm × 800 μm in 0.13 μm CMOS.
    IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems 04/2012; 20(3-20):564 - 568. DOI:10.1109/TVLSI.2011.2106170 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An all-digital fast-lock synchronous multi-phase clock generator is presented. By using a time-to-digital converter for fast-lock operation and delay measurement, the proposed multi-phase clock generator generates four-phase clocks and synchronizes the reference clock with the output clock within 45 cycles. Furthermore, the clock generator uses a fine binary scheme and de-skewing circuit for fine delay measurement and compensation. The proposed clock generator was designed in a 0.18 mum CMOS technology. It operates over a wide frequency range from 400 MHz to 1.22 GHz and consumes 34 mW at 1.22 GHz.
    International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2009), 24-17 May 2009, Taipei, Taiwan; 01/2009
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of single-photon detectors known as Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes in standard CMOS technology opened the way to new perspectives in integrating these ultra sensitive light sensors with digital logic. Light has some interesting properties that attracted researchers in computer and electronics for a long time. Its weightlessness nature makes it a candidate to replace electrons when it didn't already do so. This is particularly true for long distance data transfers. However a new trend can be observed. Researchers are looking into photonics, the science of light, for short distance communications as well. Power efficiency is one of the reasons of this trend. In fact, photons, the elementary particles of light, don't suffer of resistive, capacitive, or inductive effects like electrons do. The wavelike nature of light can also free designers from problems such as cross-talk and side-channel noise injection while taking advantage of interference. However photonics is still not the panacea and we don't believe it will ever completely replace electronics. Most certainly a combination of the two will be adopted to take advantage of both worlds. CMOS digital Integrated Circuit (IC) design faces many challenges and it is not clear whether technology will still provide small footprints, high performance, and low power in the future. Photonics with SPADs can answer some of these questions. In this work, we present three investigations where SPAD photonics is integrated within digital CMOS technology. The main contributions of this thesis are threefold: single-photon CMOS communication paradigms, single-photon processing and readout techniques, single-photon clocking and synchronization methods. Single-photon communication was achieved using a combination of SPADs and ultra-fast TDCs in a pulse position modulation scheme. In this context, theoretical channel capacity limits in the presence of noise and other non-idealities typical of SPADs were derived; a TDC with a resolution of 17 ps was demonstrated in a standard FPGA fabric. To the best of our knowledge, at the time of this writing, this is the highest reported resolution for a TDC of this kind. Single-photon processing and readout was achieved in several technologies, focusing on image sensor design, whereby massive parallel architectures were studied and implemented in CMOS. Single-photon clocking and synchronization was demonstrated allowing potentially zero skew systems irrespective of the chip area. The power benefits of this approach in embedded systems with instruction set extensions are particularly interesting. The thesis makes use of SPAD technology implemented in CMOS for a number of applications creating a bridge between digital design and high performance photonics. We believe that this is the first attempt in this direction focused on CMOS technology.
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