SWER: small world-based efficient routing for wireless sensor networks with mobile sinks.
ABSTRACT The interest in small-world network has highlighted the applicability of both the graph theory and the scaling theory to the
analysis of network systems. In this paper, we introduce a new routing protocol, small world-based efficient routing (SWER),
dedicated to supporting sink mobility and small transfers. The method is based on the concept of the small worlds where the
addition of a small number of long-range links in highly clustered networks results in significant reduction in the average
path length. Based on the characteristic of sensor networks, a cluster-based small world network is presented, and an analytical
model is developed to analyze the expected path length. SWER adopts a simple and effective routing strategy to forward data
to the mobile sink in a small transfer scene and avoid expensive mechanisms to construct a high quality route. We also study
the routing scheme and analyze the expected path length in the case where every node is aware of the existence of p long-range links. In addition, we develop a hierarchical mechanism in which the mobile sink only transmits its location information
to the cluster heads when it enters a new cluster. Thus we also avoid expensive cost to flood the location of the mobile sink
to the whole network.
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ABSTRACT: Traditional protocols for routing in ad hoc networks attempt to obtain optimal or shortest paths, and in doing so may incur significant route discovery overhead. Such approaches may be appropriate for routing long-lived transfers where the initial cost of route discovery may be amortized over the life of the connection. For short-lived connections, however, such as resource discovery and small transfers, traditional shortest path approaches may be quite inefficient. In this paper we propose a novel architecture, CARD, for resource discovery in large-scale wireless ad hoc networks. Our mechanism is suitable for resource discovery as well as routing very small data transfers or transactions in which the cost of data transfer is much smaller than the cost of route discovery. Our architecture avoids expensive mechanisms such as global flooding and complex hierarchy formation and does not require any location information. In CARD resources within the vicinity of a node, up to a limited number of hops, are discovered using a proactive scheme. For resources beyond the vicinity, each node maintains a few distant nodes called contacts. Contacts help in creating a small world in the network and provide an efficient way to query for distant resources. Using contacts, the network view (or reachability) of the nodes increases, reducing the discovery overhead and increasing the success rate. On the other hand, increasing the number of contacts also increases control overhead. We study such trade-off in depth and present mechanisms for contact selection and maintenance that attempt to increase reachability with reduced overhead. Our schemes adapt gracefully to network dynamics and mobility using soft-state periodic mechanisms to validate and recover paths to contacts. Our simulation results show that CARD is scalable and can be configured to provide desirable performance for various network sizes. Comparisons with other schemes show overhead savings reaching over 93% (vs. flooding) and 80% (vs. bordercasting or zone routing) for high query rates in large-scale networks.Mobile Networks and Applications 01/2005; 10:99-113. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are envisioned to have significant impacts on many applications. In scenarios such as first responder systems and administrative applications, data sinks are frequently being mobile. In this research, we study one-to-many and many-to-many data communications from stationary sensors to mobile sinks, which is defined as mobile multicasting here. We firstly propose Track and Transmit (TNT), a simple lightweight approach to providing mobile multicasting service in WSN. Its rationale is based on the fact that the mobile sinks will stamp their movement traces in the networks while moving continuously from one location to another. Then we propose Priced TNT (PTNT), which improves the forwarding efficiency of TNT. Compared to VLM2 (Very Lightweight Mobile Multicasting), simulations show that both TNT and PTNT are able to dramatically suppress the control overheads, as well as achieve better data delivery-ratio and acceptable delay performances.IJAHUC. 01/2007; 2:36-45.