Shifting age parity distribution of births and the decrease in infant mortality

American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 05/1975; 65(4):359-62. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.65.4.359
Source: PubMed


Possible causes for a decline in the infant mortality rate in the USA during the late 1960s are proposed and examined statistically. 27% of the decline for 1965 to 1972 is attributable solely to shifts in age of mother and birth order of infant. Individual 'family planning' has thus made a greater contribution to the reduction of infant mortality than has been previously realized.

9 Reads
  • Source
    • "These differences persisted after adjustment for socio-economic differences. Other observations, made within equivalent gestational age-groups established by ultrasonography, find that black babies are physiologically more mature than whites as measured by pulmonary function (Fujikura and Froehlich, 1966; Farrel and Wood, 1976), amniotic fluid (Olowe and Akinkughe, 1978), foetal birthweight between 24 and 36 weeks of gestation (Hardy and Mellits, 1977), and weight-specific neonatal mortality (Morris, Udry and Chase, 1975; David and Siegel, 1983). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Racial differences exist on numerous heritable behaviour traits such that Caucasoids fall between Mongoloids and Negroids. Across samples, ages, and time periods, this pattern is observed on estimates made of brain size and intelligence (cranial capacity=1448, 1408, 1334 cm3., brain weight=1351, 1336, 1286 g; IQ scores=107, 100, 85); maturation rate (age to walk alone, age of puberty, age of death); personality and temperament (activity level, anxiety, sociability); sexual restraint (gamete production, intercourse frequency, size of genitalia); and social organization (marital stability, mental health, law abidingness). These observations may be explained in part in terms of gene-culture coevolutionarily based r/K reproductive strategies.
    Personality and Individual Differences 01/1988; 9(6-9):1009-1024. DOI:10.1016/0191-8869(88)90135-3 · 1.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Linked birth and death records provided the population for a study of trends in low birth weight (LBW) rates in Baltimore between 1972 and 1977 and of the effect of changes in the characteristics of the childbearing population on these trends. The impact of shifts in the birth weight distribution on neonatal mortality rates was also investigated. Trends were analyzed for unstandardized LBW rates as well as for rates standardized on the distributions of maternal age, education, gravidity, prior pregnancy losses, and marital status.Between 1972 and 1977, the 1,500 and 2,000 gm rates rose significantly by approximately 1 infant per 1,000 live births per year among whites and 2 infants per 1,000 live births among nonwhites. Despite declines in rates for most weights, the effect of these increases was a rise in neonatal mortality rates for both races, but especially for nonwhites.The population of women delivering in Baltimore in 1977 became slightly older, slightly more educated, and of higher gravidity than in 1972, but these changes had little impact on yearly fluctuations in LBW rates. In contrast, increases in births to unmarried women and to women with at least one prior pregnancy loss were related to rising LBW rates. For both races, standardization on marital status and prior pregnancy losses diminishes the increase in the LBW rate over the study period, especially when standardization is performed simultaneously for both variables. These findings hold within maternal age, education, and gravidity groups. However, the LBW rates for nonwhite teenage mothers and for nonwhite women with 12 years of less education increased significantly over the study period, regardless of standardization.
    Public Health Reports 06/1982; 97(3):273-82. · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Public Health Reports 01/1978; 93(4):386-93. · 1.55 Impact Factor
Show more


9 Reads
Available from