Energy efficient Robust On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol for MANETs
ABSTRACT In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), multicast routing protocols are being faced the challenge of producing multi-hop routes under severe resource constraints such as battery power, limited bandwidth and dynamic network topology. Multicasting in MANETs is complex and the overall energy is to be conserved as much as possible while achieving good throughput. In this paper, an energy efficient Robust On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ROMRP) has been proposed to increase the overall throughput and the lifetime of multicast session by efficiently monitoring the group leader in order to preserve the multicast session without affecting loss of data packets and network partitioning.
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ABSTRACT: Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET), a subclass of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), is a promising approach for the intelligent transportation system (ITS). The design of routing protocols in VANETs is important and necessary issue for support the smart ITS. The key difference of VANET and MANET is the special mobility partem and rapidly changeable topology. It is not effectively applied the existing routing protocols of MANETs into VANETs. In this investigation, we mainly survey new routing results in VANET. We introduce unicast protocol, multicast protocol, geocast protocol, mobicast protocol, and broadcast protocol. It is observed that cany-and-forward is the new and key consideration for designing all routing protocols in VANETs. With the consideration of multi-hop forwarding and carry-and-forward techniques, min-delay and delay-bounded routing protocols for VANETs are discussed in VANETs. Besides, the temporary network fragmentation problem and the broadcast storm problem are further considered for designing routing protocols in VANETs. The temporary network fragmentation problem caused by rapidly changeable topology influence on the performance of data transmissions. The broadcast storm problem seriously affects the successful rate of message delivery in VANETs. The key challenge is to overcome these problems to provide routing protocols with the low communication delay, the low communication overhead, and the low time complexity. The challenges and perspectives of routing protocols for VANETs are finally discussed.
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we present a diagonal-intersection-based routing (DIR) protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks. The DIR protocol constructs a series of diagonal intersections between the source and destination vehicles. The DIR protocol is a geographic routing protocol. Based on the geographic routing protocol, source vehicle geographically forwards data packet toward the first diagonal intersection, second diagonal intersection, and so on, until the last diagonal intersection, and finally geographically reach to the destination vehicle. For given a pair of neighboring diagonal intersections, two or more disjoint sub-paths exist between them. The novel property of DIR protocol is the auto-adjustability, while the auto-adjustability is achieved that one sub-path with low data packet delay, between two neighboring diagonal intersections, is dynamically selected to forward data packets. To reduce the data packet delay, the route is automatically re-routed by the selected sub-path with lowest delay. The proposed DIR protocol allows the mobile source and destination vehicles in the urban VANETs. Experimental results show that the DIR protocol outperforms existing solutions in terms of packet delivery ratio, data packet delay, and throughput.Telecommunication Systems 04/2011; 46(4):299-316. DOI:10.1007/s11235-010-9294-2 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Designing routing protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks MANETs is a complex task because of its dynamic topology. A kind of routing protocols that suits the particularity of MANETs is so-called bio-inspired. Among these, focused on Ant Colony Optimisation ACO, which studies the behaviour of ants in their search for food, are especially relevant. One of these algorithms is AntOR, which relying on swarm intelligence, efficiently solves routing in MANETs. In this paper we show a parallelised version of AntOR, the so-called P-AntOR, that using programming multiprocessor architectures based on shared memory protocol, allows to run tasks in parallel using threads, being applicable this parallelisation in the route discovery phase, route local repair process and link failure notification. The simulation results indicate that P-AntOR performs better than its predecessor, with emphasis on the metric of average End-To-End delay, jitter and packet delivery ratio.International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing 03/2013; 12(3):141-146. DOI:10.1504/IJAHUC.2013.052410 · 0.55 Impact Factor