Reports on the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) to counteract hemorrhagic shock in neonates and preterm infants are increasing. rFVIIa enhances thrombin generation in situations with impaired thrombin formation and, since thrombin has a crucial role in providing hemostasis, rFVIIa is regarded as a general hemostasis agent. Full thrombin generation is necessary for the formation of a stable fibrin plug resistant to premature fibrinolysis. Antifibrinolytic drugs are not recommended for the treatment of acute bleeding. We report four neonates (one with massive postsurgical hemorrhage after ileostomy and three with severe pulmonary hemorrhage in the course of mechanical ventilation for meconium aspiration syndrome, congenital heart disease and during postoperative resuscitation after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease) who were successfully treated with multiple administration of rFVIIa (120 mg/kg per dose) and antifibrinolytic therapy — aminocaproic acid
(100 mg/kg per dose). In a fibrinolytic environment therapeutic concentrations of rFVIIa may sometimes be insufficient to produce adequate amounts of thrombin necessary for stable clot structure. Laboratory data in three of our patients with pulmonary hemorrhage (low fibrinogen levels with slightly prolonged prothrombin time) supported this thesis, so we blocked fibrinolysis with aminocaproic acid and achieved a complete clinical and laboratory therapeutic effect. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 17:413 – 415 ß 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Postoperative hemorrhage is a recognized complication of pediatric cardiac surgery. Both the immature coagulation system and increased susceptibility to hemodilution increase the likelihood of pediatric patients developing coagulopathy when compared with adult counterparts. Treatment options remain limited. Recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) is a hemostatic agent increasingly used to reduce hemorrhage in other surgical settings, the role of which is unclear in this population. This article systematically reviews the published literature on the use of rFVIIa in pediatric cardiac surgery.
A systematic literature search identified reports of rFVIIa administration in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Where possible, individual patient-specific data were extracted and pooled statistical analysis was performed.
Twenty-nine articles reporting on the administration of rFVIIa to 169 patients were identified. rFVIIa has been administered to patients with predefined congenital abnormalities of hemostasis to arrest hemorrhage refractory to other interventions and prophylactically in the hope of reducing blood loss. Treatment regimens vary widely, in terms of both first and cumulative dose. Data on chest tube blood loss and two markers of coagulation were pooled and analyzed, and significant improvements were demonstrated. Mortality was 4.4% for the entire cohort but 20% of patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation suffered significant thromboembolic complications.
rFVIIa has an increasingly accepted role in the management of patients with congenital coagulopathies undergoing major surgery. However, randomized trials are required to define the role of rFVIIa as an adjunct to control major hemorrhage in the pediatric cardiac surgical population. Any future work must focus not only on benefits but also on patient safety, particularly, risk of morbid thromboembolic complication.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 06/2009; 10(5):572-82. DOI:10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181a642d5 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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