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Available from: Giovanni Vecchiato, Jan 27, 2014
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    • "Advertisements are intensively presented on TV programs and magazines worldwide. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have begun to investigate how commercial brand information is processed in the brain (Paulus & Frank, 2003; Deppe, Schwindt, Kugel & Kenning, 2005; Vecchiato et al., 2011a). Although the experimental designs vary, these studies report activity in ventral and/or medial prefrontal cortex during the contemplation or consumption of familiar brand-name products. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the cerebral activity of a group of Eastern people during the observation of a Western and an Eastern version of the same TV commercial advertising a very popular smartphone. By comparing the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in theta, alpha and heart rate (HR) activity of the population investigated, we estimated and compared the levels of memorization, attention, pleasantness and emotion perceived. Results present and increase of the pleasantness and emotion while watching particular scenes of interest of the Eastern version of the commercial. These findings suggest that this kind of technology is able to track variation of the cerebral activity related to cognitive and emotional processing across TV commercials. Moreover, there is the possibility to investigate frame segments of particular interest for marketers that could be properly adapted according to the cultural context in which the advertising campaign will be promoted.
    Neuropsychological Trends 11/2014; 16(16). DOI:10.7358/neur-2014-016-vecc · 0.15 Impact Factor
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    • "There have been helpful but limited number of studies concerning the empirical foundations of the current status of neuromarketing as a broad research program. Different domains of cognitive activity such as consciousness (Chartrand et al. 2008; Pessiglione et al. 2008), attention (Bargh 2002), memory (Tom et al. 2007; Chessa and Murre 2007; Morrin and Ratneshwar 2003), decision-making (Plassmann et al. 2008; Chib et al. 2009), preference (Stoll et al. 2008), emotions (Groeppel-Klein 2005; Dolcos et al. 2004), sensory domains (Krishna and Morrin 2008; Morewedge et al. 2010; De Araujo et al. 2003), cultural impacts (McClure et al. 2004; Vecchiato et al. 2011) and predicting choices (Knutson et al. 2007; Levy et al. 2011; Tusche et al. 2010) have been explored and investigated. We need further scientific research, beyond these introductory academic studies in order to establish a stronger basis for the validation of the scientific background of neuromarketing. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuromarketing is a recent interdisciplinary field which crosses traditional boundaries between neuroscience, neuroeconomics and marketing research. Since this nascent field is primarily concerned with improving marketing strategies and promoting sales, there has been an increasing public aversion and protest against it. These protests can be exemplified by the reactions observed lately in Baylor School of Medicine and Emory University in the United States. The most recent attempt to stop ongoing neuromarketing research in France is also remarkable. The pertaining ethical issues have been continuously attracting much attention, especially since the number of neuromarketing companies has exceeded 300 world-wide. This paper begins with a brief introduction to the field of neurotechnology by presenting its current capabilities and limitations. Then, it will focus on the ethical issues and debates most related with the recent applications of this technology. The French Parliament's revision of rules on bioethics in 2004 has an exemplary role in our discussion. The proposal by Murphy et al. (2008) has attracted attention to the necessity of ethical codes structuring this field. A code has recently been declared by the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association. In this paper, it is argued that these technologies should be sufficiently discussed in public spheres and its use on humans should be fully carried out according to the ethical principles and legal regulations designed in line with human rights and human dignity. There is an urgent need in the interdisciplinary scientific bodies like ethics committees monitoring the research regarding the scientific and ethical values of nonmaleficence, beneficence, autonomy, confidentiality, right to privacy and protection of vulnerable groups.
    Science and Engineering Ethics 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11948-014-9581-5 · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we have analyzed electroencephalography (EEG) signals to investigate the following issues, (i) which frequencies and EEG channels could be relatively better indicators of preference (like or dislike decisions) of consumer products, (ii) timing characteristic of "like" decisions during such mental processes. For this purpose, we have obtained multichannel EEG recordings from 15 subjects, during total of 16epochs of 10s long, while they were presented with some shoe photographs. When they liked a specific shoe, they pressed on a button and marked the time of this activity and the particular epoch was labeled as a LIKE case. No button press meant that the subject did not like the particular shoe that was displayed and corresponding epoch designated as a DISLIKE case. After preprocessing, power spectral density (PSD) of EEG data was estimated at different frequencies (4, 5, …, 40Hz) using the Burg method, for each epoch corresponding to one shoe presentation. Each subject's data consisted of normalized PSD values (NPVs) from all LIKE and DISLIKE cases/epochs coming from all 19 EEG channels. In order to determine the most discriminative frequencies and channels, we have utilized logistic regression, where LIKE/DISLIKE status was used as a categorical (binary) response variable and corresponding NPVs were the continuously valued input variables or predictors. We observed that when all the NPVs (total of 37) are used as predictors, the regression problem was becoming ill-posed due to large number of predictors (compared to the number of samples) and high correlation among predictors. To circumvent this issue, we have divided the frequency band into low frequency (LF) 4-19Hz and high frequency (HF) 20-40Hz bands and analyzed the influence of the NPV in these bands separately. Then, using the p-values that indicate how significantly estimated predictor weights are different than zero, we have determined the NPVs and channels that are more influential in determining the outcome, i.e., like/dislike decision. In the LF band, 4 and 5Hz were found to be the most discriminative frequencies (MDFs). In the HF band, none of the frequencies seemed offer significant information. When both male and female data was used, in the LF band, a frontal channel on the left (F7-A1) and a temporal channel on the right (T6-A2) were found to be the most discriminative channels (MDCs). In the HF band, MDCs were central (Cz-A1) and occipital on the left (O1-A1) channels. The results of like timings suggest that male and female behavior for this set of stimulant images were similar.
    Computer methods and programs in biomedicine 11/2013; 113(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cmpb.2013.11.010 · 1.90 Impact Factor