In diesem Versuch sind 11 Hündinnen mit tiefgefrorenem Sperma besamt worden.
Die spermienreiche Ejakulatsfraktion wurde unmittelbar nach der Samenentnahme mit einer Tris-Fructose-Zitronensüure-Lösung, die 8 Vol. % Glyzerin und 20 Vol. % Eidotter enthielt, etwa 1: 4 verdünnt. Wührend einer 3stündigen Equilibrierungszeit wurde der Samen auf + 5 °C heruntergekühlt, and in PVC-Röhrchen im Stickstoffdampf eingefroren.
Die Inseminationsdosen, die ungefähr 150 × 106 Spermien enthielten und 3 Wochen bis 1 1/2 Jahre gelagert waren, wurden unmittelbar nach dem Auftauen für 6,5 Sek. im Wasserbad von + 75 °C, durch den Cervicalkanal intrauterin deponiert. Es wurde meistens zweimal mit etwa 48stündigen Intervallen inseminiert. Von den 11 Hündinnen konzipierten 10 und brachten von ein bis sieben Junge. Die höchste Zahl der lebendigen Welpen in einem Wurf war sechs.
Insemination with frozen dog semen was performed in a small trial including 11 bitches. The semen was diluted about 1: 4 with Tris-fructose-citric acid extender containing 8 % (v/v) glycerol and 20 % (v/v) egg yolk, equilibrated for 3 hrs and frozen in P.V.C.-straws by use of N2-vapour. The insemination doses being stored in liquid N2 from 3 weeks to 1 1/2 year and containing about 150 × 106 spermätozoa, was deposited in the uterus via the cervical canal immediately after thawing at 75 °C for 6,5 sec. By this procedure conception was obtained in 10 of the 11 bitches. The litter size ranged from one to seven puppies, the highest number of living puppies being six.
"The spermatozoa were loaded into a 0.25 mL-straw and then frozen by placing the straw horizontally 4 cm above liquid nitrogen vapors for 10 min. The straw was finally immersed in the liquid nitrogen (Andersen, 1975).. Thawing procedure was performed by immersing the straw in warm water (37C) for 15 s. The frozen-thawed semen was then released into a pre-warmed thawing medium (37C). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cryopreservation of epididymal sperm is an effective technique to preserve genetic materials of domestic cats and wild felids when they unexpectedly die. However, this technique inevitably causes detrimental changes of cryopreserved-thawed spermatozoa, for example, by physical damage and excessive oxidative stress. L-carnitine is an antioxidant that has been used to improve sperm motility in humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on cat epididymal sperm quality following cryopreservation and thawing. After routine castration, cauda epididymides were collected from 60 cat testes. The epididymal spermatozoa from 3 cauda epididymides were pooled as 1 replicate. Spermatozoa samples (16 replicates) were examined for spermatozoa quality and then randomly divided into 4 groups: 0 mM L-carnitine (control), 12.5 mM, 25 mM and 50 mM L-carnitine. The sperm aliquots were then equilibrated and conventionally frozen. After thawing, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, DNA integrity and acrosome integrity were evaluated. The 25 mM L-carnitine significantly improved sperm motility compared with a control group (p<0.05), although this was not significantly different among other concentrations. In conclusion, supplementation of 25 mM L-carnitine in freezing extender improves cauda epididymal spermatozoa motility. The effects of L-carnitine on the levels of oxidative stress during freezing and thawing remains to be examined.
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 06/2014; 27(6):791-6. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2013.13565 · 0.54 Impact Factor
"The semen used in this study was collected from two fertility proven tom cats and then
frozen according to Andersen  with minor
modifications. In brief, the cats were anesthetized with 0.04 mg/kg atropine sulphate
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developmental competence and quality of in vitro produced embryos has been demonstrated to be lower than in vivo derived embryos. This study aimed specifically to determine the effects of in vitro culture of feline embryos using various culture densities on developmental competence and expression of stress- and apoptotic-related genes in terms of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and apoptotic-related (BAX and BCL-2) gene expressions. In experiment 1, we characterized the inducible form of a feline-specific HSP70 mRNA sequence, as it has not been previously reported. The primers for feline HSP70 mRNA were synthesized and tested on heat-treated cat fibroblasts. In experiment 2, feline embryos were cultured at different culture densities (embryo:culture volume; 1:1.25, 1:5 and 1:20). The developmental competence was determined along with HSP70, BAX and BCL-2 transcript abundances using quantitative RT-PCR. In vivo derived embryos were used as a control group. A partial cat HSP70 mRNA sequence (190 bp) was characterized and exhibited high nucleotide identity (93 to 96%) with other species. Cleaved embryos cultured at high density (1:1.25) developed to blastocysts at a lower rate than those generated from lower densities. Irrespective of the culture densities used, in vitro cultured blastocysts showed increased levels of HSP70 and BAX transcripts compared with in vivo counterparts. Blastocysts derived from the highest culture density (1:1.25) showed higher levels of upregulation of HSP70 and BAX transcripts than those cultured at lower culture densities (1:5 and 1:20). In conclusion, increased levels of pro-apoptotic (BAX) and stress-response (HSP70) transcripts correlated with developmental incompetence of embryos cultured at high embryonic density, indicating that stress accumulated during in vitro embryo culture affected the fate for embryo development and quality.
Journal of Reproduction and Development 01/2013; 59(2). DOI:10.1262/jrd.2012-116 · 1.52 Impact Factor
"In the last 25 years, a lot of research has been conducted on different aspects of canine reproduction, and AI technology has been well developed. Especially the technique of intrauterine insemination using the Scandinavian catheter (Andersen, 1975; Linde-Forsberg, 2001) without any surgical intervention increased the success rate of AI in the dog (Linde-Forsberg and Forsberg, 1989; Rota et al., 1999, Linde-Forsberg 1995; 2001). Today AI in the dog is a common procedure in veterinary clinics. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether the immotility induced by the CLONE chilled semen extender prolongs the lifespan of dog spermatozoa stored at 5 degrees C, compared with a Tris-egg yolk-glucose (TG) extender, which maintains motility. Pooled semen was split in four aliquots, centrifuged, and the four sperm pellets mixed with TG extender; with the CLONE chilled semen (CL) extender; with TG extender mixed with an activator (TG+A(TG)); or with the CLONE extender mixed with the CLONE activator (CL+A(CL)). Samples were stored at 5 degrees C for 23 days and examined 12 times for sperm motility, plasma membrane and acrosome integrity, glucose consumption, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI). The experiment was performed in triplicate. Glucose consumption was not significantly different between extenders until the period 15-23 days, when it was higher in CL and CL+A(CL) than in TG (P=0.0055) and TG+A(TG) (P=0.0010). No breakdown of DNA chromatin (P>0.05) occurred until day 14. Spermatozoa preserved in TG or TG+A(TG) showed better values for all the different parameters throughout the experiment compared with sperm subjected to CL or CL+A(CL). In conclusion, the immotility induced by the CLONE chilled semen extender during long-term cold storage at 5 degrees C did not prolong the lifespan of spermatozoa compared with the lifespan following storage in Tris-egg yolk-glucose. In addition, our results indicate that good quality dog semen may possibly be stored for up to 14 days in TG extender at 5 degrees C, with retained fertilizing capacity. In vivo studies should, however, be performed to further support this conclusion.
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