A Model Of Creativity And Innovation In Organizations

Research In Organizational Behavior 10:123-167.
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    ABSTRACT: People differ in their implicit theories about mental toughness, that is, whether they believe this quality is immutable (entity theorists) or changeable (incremental theorists). The aim of this study was to explore whether peoples' implicit theories of mental toughness are related to cognitive, motivational, and behavioral variables considered as hallmarks of this personal quality. We conducted 3 studies with participants from different achievement contexts: 444 undergraduate students aged 17 to 26 years (M = 19.25); 395 employees aged 25 to 79 years (M = 48.78); and 230 adolescent athletes aged 11 to 17 years (M = 14.98). Students completed a measure of implicit theories of mental toughness, fear of failure, and perceived stress. Employees completed a measure of implicit theories and were rated on performance and creativity by their supervisor. Athletes completed a measure of implicit theories of mental toughness, resilience, and thriving. Across all 3 samples, cluster analyses supported the existence of an incremental theory (high incremental theory, low entity theory) alongside an ambivalent group (moderate scores on both theories). These clusters differed on fear of failure, stress, performance, creativity, resilience, and thriving consistent with theoretical expectations. The current findings suggest that people's implicit theories of mental toughness may have important implications for understanding cognitive, motivational, and behavioral correlates considered hallmarks of this psychological concept.
    Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology. 08/2014; published online.
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    ABSTRACT: Tapping common creativity of people inside and outside organizational, geographical and technological boundaries is a big challenge for leaders in virtual work to add value in value chains. The object of this article is – through the descriptive interpretative concept analysis and inductive epistemological approach – to define leadership that fosters creativity in virtual work. The outcome is a map of mutual connections of the concepts of virtuality, creativity and transformational, emotional and complexity leadership. The findings suggest that effective leadership in virtual work requires broad understanding of virtuality and creativity and spaces and relations between people. The analysis indicates benefits from integral theoretical pluralism, i.e. from utilizing several theoretical approaches in developing leadership theory for virtuality at work, and offers thoughts for creating new concepts and developing leadership towards sustainability in organizations. Keywords: creativity, virtuality, virtual work, leadership, transformational leadership, emotional leadership, complexity leadership, theoretical pluralism
    Ammattikasvatuksen aikakauskirja. 12/2014; 2014(3):22-43.


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