Nucleotide specific changes in the hypervariable region of 16S rDNA gene as possible marker to differentiate the tick genera.

The Indian journal of animal sciences (Impact Factor: 0.13). 01/2011; 18(12):1204-1207.

ABSTRACT Hyper variable segment of mitochondrial 16S rDNA from different stages of laboratory reared, disease free and
acaricide susceptible Hyalomma anatolicum and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus were partially amplified, sequenced
and analyzed with the aid of the GenBank database. Thirty conserved genus specific nucleotide change were observed
in Hyalommid and Boophilid ticks. These conserved sequences were sufficient to identify embryonic stages of the
ticks. These conserved sequences at the genus level could act as biomarker for identification of ticks during
epidemiological studies of tick borne diseases, transmitted by Hyalommid and Rhipicephalid ticks.

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    ABSTRACT: The vector borne diseases cause heavy loss to mankind and livestock industry throughout the world. Global climate changes reported to contribute to the recurrence and new epidemics of vector borne diseases. Unfortunately, the available strategies to control vector borne diseases are insufficient and public health burden of the major vector borne diseases is on increasing trend. Complete eradication of a vector population is not realistic and desirable for many arthropod vector species due to biological constraints. Genetic transformation of vectors offers the way to control the diseases transmitted by the arthropod vectors without killing them and is also an economically viable option. Genetic transformation of arthropod vectors is a new strategy in the genomic era in which the synthetic effector gene is introduced into the genome of vectors to block the developmental stages of parasite/pathogen inside the vector and subsequent driving of the effector gene into the wild vector population in a geographical area. However, the knowledge on the putative risk factors associated with the release of transgenic arthropod vectors in the field is lacking and considerable work is needed before the deployment of transgenic arthropod vectors in nature. Introduction Arthropod vectors inflict heavy loss to mankind and livestock industry, directly by biting and sucking blood, and indirectly by transmitting vector borne diseases. Vector borne diseases claim millions of lives of human and livestock every year. Among them malaria itself claims more than one million human lives every year 1 . The economic loss in the livestock industry due to ticks and tick borne diseases in Australia alone was estimated as $150 million every year 2 . The important vectors and vector borne diseases are listed in Table 1. The traditional control methods like chemotherapy and vaccination against vector borne diseases and use of insecticide, sterile insect release, biological control, immunological control and pheromone trapping against insect vectors are not sufficient enough to control the vector borne diseases 3 . Moreover, the antigenic variation present in most of the vector borne parasites/pathogens poses a challenge in the development of effective vaccine against vector borne diseases 4,5 . The global warming has been facilitating breeding of arthropod vectors and their entry into new geographical areas and is likely to disturb the delicate equilibrium and contribute to new epidemics of vector borne diseases 6 . The development of resistance against insecticides and chemotherapeutic agents increased the reoccurrence of these diseases. Dam construction, irrigation and other developmental projects, urbanization, increased human travel and deforestation have all resulted in changes in vector population densities that appear to have enabled the emergence of new vector borne diseases and resurgence of old diseases 7 . So it is the time to explore newer strategies to combat vector borne diseases. Although eradication is a common arthropod pest control strategy, it is not realistic for many pests due to biological constraints, and it may even be undesirable if it merely produced an empty ecological niche that might be readily filled by new immigrants 8 . Advances in molecular and cell biology, and genomics have allowed us to identify weak links in the diseases transmission of vectors, and tremendous advancements in the field of genetic engineering have paved the way to explore newer approaches. Although ongoing efforts to develop and improve conventional methods for the control of vector borne diseases have not been abandoned, novel strategies are needed.
    Indian Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 08/2007; 6:305-314.
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    ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic relationships among tick subfamilies have been estimated using morphological and molecular characters. However, the phylogeny based on a portion of the 16S mitochondrial rDNA gene differed from the morphologically based phylogeny in a number of important respects. The entire 18S rDNA gene was examined in 18 taxa from all tick subfamilies to test the 16S rDNA based phylogeny. The 18S phylogeny supports the earlier 16S based phylogeny in placing members of Hyalomminae on a common branch with members of the Rhipicephalinae and in indicating long branch lengths among soft tick taxa. However, unlike the 16S phylogeny, Amblyomminae was monophyletic and members of Haemaphysalinae did not arise within Amblyomminae. Argasinae formed a monophyletic group within Argasidae and was not a sister taxon of the hard ticks. In most respects, the phylogeny based on the 18S rDNA gene resembles the morphologically based phylogeny.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 03/1997; 7(1):129-44. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: On a global basis, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, rickettsiae, spirochaets, and viruses than any other arthropods and are among the most important vectors of diseases affecting livestock, humans, and companion animals. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) affect 80% of the world cattle population and are widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Ticks and tick-transmitted infections have coevolved with various wild animal hosts, which constitute the reservoir hosts for ticks and tick-borne pathogens of livestock, pets, and humans. In this region, the livestock sector is suffering from a number of disease problems caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Among the parasitological problems, the damage caused by TTBDs is considered very high, and the control of TTBDs has been given priority.
    Parasitology Research 10/2007; 101 Suppl 2:S207-16. · 2.85 Impact Factor


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